Tag Archives: Radha-Krishna

Kangra painting : timeless echo from the hills

 

     The valleys and hills of the Lower Himalayas in Himachal Pradesh, India is beautiful and inspiring. Nature’s beauty echoes here in greenery and cool scenery. The Pahari school of Indian painting flourished here during the 18th and 19th centuries. Of the different schools, the Kangra style is very famous and well known. The erstwhile Kangra princely state is majorly responsible for the development and flowering of the style. Sometimes Pahari school is used synonymously with the Kangra style though there are many variations ! Kangra painting has its  This style uses a lot of green and other refreshing colours.  The painters used colours from minerals and vegetal sources. The distinctive feature of this school is its emphasis on naturalistic images, greenery, flora and fauna.  The paintings are full of the shringara rasa (beauty and eroticism),the sense of lyricism is very evident in the paintings and soothes the eye and heart of the viewer. The love between Lord Krishna and Radha as described in Gita-Govinda, episodes from Lord Krishna’s life : Bhagavata Purana, the Nala Damayanti story, Barahmasa of Keshav Das have been the themes. The Sat Sai of Bihari Lal depicted Radha-Krishna in an architectural setting. Nayak-nayika bheda is also a theme of these paintings. One can recognise  a Kangra painting by some unique characteristics. Excellent greenery in different shades and vegetal forms like trees, creepers are all seen. There is an amazing attention paid to detail. Women are depicted as soft and beautiful, with sharp beautiful facial features. Night scenes with thunder and lightning are also found. The paintings have a sense of serenity found among the hilly valleys and greenery. Naturalism is at its peak in Kangra paintings.

       The origin of Kangra painting happened in the state of  Guler in the Himalayan valley during 18th century under Raja Dalip Singh who ruled 1695 to 1741 A.D. He gave shelter to Kashmiri artists at his court who were trained in Mughal style. The style was immortalised by the works of the sons of Pandit Seu, the celebrated Nainsukh( 1710-1778) and his older brother Manuku. who worked actively 1725 to 1760 at Guler. The style evolved to include Mughal elements and new local idioms. The early Kangra paintings were mostly portraits made during the reign of Ghamand Chand( ruled 1761-1774 A.D) made mostly by Gaudhu, son of Nainsukh.

    Kangra painting grew under Maharaja Sansar Chand (1775 to 1823). He occupied the Kangra Fort in 1786 and was a powerful king. Being an ardent devote of Lord Krishna, he patronised the artists who painted Radha-Krishna and the portraits of their masters. The Kangra style originated at Guler but later evolved its own freshness and character by depicting Shiva-Parvati, Radha-Krishna among other themes. Nainsukh’s sons were part of the atelier of Sansar Chand; Kama,Gaundhu,Nikka and Ranjha. They worked at Guler, Basohli, Chamba among others. Maharaja Sansar Chand annexed part of Chamba teritory in 1794 by defeating Raja Raj Singh. He defeated the Rajas of Sirmur, Mandi and Suket; the Raja of Guler, Prakash Chand became his vassal. In course of time however the enemies of Sansar Chand instigated the Gorkhas to attack Kangra who laid siege to the fort in 1805. The artists abandoned Kangra and his atelier was disturbed forever. He could not retain his fort and territories and had to shift to Tira-Sujanpur where he tried to revive the art. and some artworks were created. However the previous energy seemed to have got diluted and Sansar Chand  became a legend and patron of one of India’s iconic art forms. Kangra had been under the Mughals till 1786 and under the Sikhs from 1810-1846. At Nurpur, paintings were mostly done during the rule of Prithvi Singh (1735-89) and Bir Singh (1785-1846). Thus the principal centre of Pahari (of the hiils) painting was the Kangra valley; under the patronage of the rulers of Guler, Kangra and Kings of Nurpur. Later the artists migrated to Mandi, Suket, Kulu, Tehri Garhwal, Basohli and Chamba and Bilaspur.

A scene as described in the Gita Govinda by Jayadeva:

kaliya-visha-dhara-bhañjana
jana-rañjana e
yadukula-nalina-dinesha
jaya jaya deva hare 

O Deva! O Hari! You pulverize the pride of the venomous snake, Kaliya. You fill the hearts of your dearest ones with endless joy. You are the sun that makes the lotus of the Yadu dynasty bloom. May you be triumphant! May you be triumphant!

Kaliya's wifes and Krishna. Kangra c.1785-90. Painting of India.JPG

Kaliya’s wives and Krishna, painting, Kangra, c.1785-90.

By Ismoon (talk) 22:02, 24 February 2012 (UTC) – Own work, CC0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18487484

     Another scene as described in the Gita Govinda by Jayadeva:

meghair meduram ambaram vana-bhuvah shyämäs tamäla-drumair:
naktam bhéru rayaàm tvam eva tad imam, rädhe gåham präpaya |
ittham nanda-nideshataha calitayoù praty-adhva-kuïja-drumaà
rädhä-mädhavayor jayanti yamunä-küle rahaù-kelaya: 

The sky is thick with clouds; the forest area is dark with the tamala trees; the night frightens him (Krishna); Oh Radha! you take him home; This is the command from Nanda.  But, Radha and Madhava stray to the tree on the banks of river Yamuna, and their secret love sport prevails.

Krishna with flute.jpg

                                 Krishna with flute, painting, circa 1790 and 1800.

By Smithsonian Freer and Sackler Gallery – Smithsonian Freer and Sackler Gallery[1], Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=2439033

Marriage of Parvati and Shiva, Opaque watercolor and gold on paper, First half of 19th century.tiff

                    Marriage of Parvati and Shiva, painting, first half of 19th century.

By Firedrop – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=27694651

Radha celebrating Holi, c1788.jpg

Radha celebrating Holi, painting, c.1788.

By Anonymous – Victoria Albert Museum [1], Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4175518

Rama, Sita, and Lakshmana at the Hermitage of Bharadvaja Page from a dispersed Ramayana (Story of King Rama), ca. 1780.jpg

Rama, Sita, and Lakshmana at the hermitage of Bharadvaja,page from a dispersed Ramayana, 1780.

By Kangra workshop – Page from a dispersed Ramayana (Story of King Rama),http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1976.15, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=17104952

Rama Returns in Victory to Ayodhya, Pahari, Kangra, Fitzwilliam Museum.jpg

               Rama returning to Ayodhya, Pahari, Kangra, painted between circa 1780                                                                           and  circa 1790.

By Anonymous – The Fitzwilliam Museum, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=60015055

File:Damayanti Looks in the Mirror, Folio from a Nala-Damayanti LACMA M.83.105.6.jpg

Damayanti looks in the mirror, folio from a Nala-Damayanti, Kangra, circa 1790

File:Krishna Talks to Radha's Maidservant, Folio from a Satsai (Seven Hundred Verses) of Bihari Lal LACMA AC1999.127.5.jpg
Lord  Krishna talks to Radha’s maid, folio from a Sat-sai  of Bihari Lal, Kangra, circa 1825.

 

 

References :

 

Posted by :

 

Soma Ghosh

 

©author

Advertisements

Terracotta art of Bengal : magnificent Radha-Krishna images

       Many themes are portrayed in the terracotta plaques, or on the walls and facades of the temples of Bengal. The images of Radha-Krishna dominate many of the temples. The images are in monochrome format but manage to convey the much-loved presence of Lord Krishna with his flute, along with Radha or the other gopis. Such is the skill of the artist- craftsman or karigar. This technique has been perfected in a region where instead of granite or sandstone,  clay and laterite were available and used for building and sculpting on the walls of the temples.  The geological profile of Bengal is that of a fertile alluvial soil and laterite tracts in many districts covering Bankura, Bardhaman, Birbhum, Midnapur and Malda.  Laterite has also been used during construction of Bengal temples. Episodes from the epics, the Puranas and everyday life including erotica has been depicted in some temples. Showcased are some Radha-Krishna images in terracotta which are both exquisite  in detail and awe-inspiring.

    The Ras-chakra depicts the Ras-lila.  Raslila is a celebratory dance done in the form of a ras-mandala  or ras-chakra by gopis along with Lord Krishna  Gopis are cowherd maidens who are smitten with Lord Krishna, Radha being the main among them.The Raslilais described in the Bhagavata-purana and Jayadeva’s Gita -Govinda. The word lila means play or act, whereas ras refers to emotion or essenceflavour/mood etc. It is difficult to find an exact synonym in the English language; raslila is a dance of  divine love.  It is believed that one night, on hearing Krishna playing on his flute, all gopis of Vrindavan left their homes and joined him in a dance in the forest or grove where they danced through the night. Lord Krishna manifested himself in multiple form and each gopi believed that he was dancing with her. A unique circle is formed in the raslila called the ras-mandala. The Bhakti tradition followers believe that the earthly romantic love  between human beings is a dilute form and the intense love for Krishna felt by the gopis is like the soul searching for the ultimate , the God divine in the spiritual realm. The gopis are believed to be shadows of Lord Krishna’s own form. A splendorous Raslila depiction  is seen at Shyamrai Temple at Bishnupur in Bankura district. Ornate floral medallions are seen around the depiction.

Terracotta work on Shyamrai Temple Bishnupur 8.JPG

Ras-lila depiction, terracotta work on Shyamrai Temple, Bishnupur,West Bengal.

Amartyabag – নিজের কাজ কর্তৃক, সিসি বাই-এসএ ৩.০, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18523365

The Ras-lila is a popular theme and has been depicted in the media of paintings too. Below is shown a Ras-lila depiction in painting from the Jaipur school from the 19th century.

Krishna and Radha dancing the Rasalila, Jaipur, 19th century.jpg

Radha-Krishna and gopis in Ras-lila, Jaipur, 19th century.

By Anonymous – http://www.artgallery.nsw.gov.au/collection/works/130.1986/, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4179978

     The Brindaban Chandra’s Math at Kalna has Radha-Krishna sulptures in terracotta with ornate floral patterns around the main figure to give an impression of symmetry. After the floral pattern, one can see medallions in different shapes to add to the overall effect.

Group of temples known as Brindaban Chandra's Math

Brindaban Chandra’s math, Ambika-Kalna, Bardhaman, West Bengal.

By Partha70007 – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=21712965

BRINDAVANCHANDRA'S MATH 01, Ambika-Kalna, Bardhaman, West Bengal.jpg

Radha-Krisha sculptures, Brindaban Chandra’s math, Ambika-Kalna, Bardhaman, West Bengal.

By Sucheta Nag – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=62097825

    The Brindaban Chandra Math from Guptipara, Hooghly has a complex of temples made from brick of the 18th and 19th century.

Guptipara - Temple Complex Brindaban Chandra's Math

Temple Complex, Brindaban Chandra’s Math,Guptipara, Hooghly, West Bengal.

Von Gautam Tarafder – Eigenes Werk, CC-BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=51496851

A Radha-Krishna depiction with floral decoration around can be seen below. Radha seems to be lost in the soulful music being played by Lord Krishna on his divine flute.

Terracota work at Brindaban Chandra's Math.jpg

Brindaban Chandra’s Math, Guptipara, Hooghly, West Bengal.

By Partha70007 – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=21712964

Lalji Temple - Kalna - Inner Panel - 9.jpg

Panel, Lalji temple, Kalna, Bardhaman, West Bengal.

By Sumit Surai – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=51950483

Pratapeshwar temple,Kalna,West Bengal.

By Piyal Kundu \ পিয়াল কুণ্ডু – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=5694032

 

References :

  • Terracotta art of Bengal/Biswas,S.S,Delhi : Agam Kala Prakashan,1981.
  • Indian terracotta art/Ganguly,O.C, Bombay : rupa and Co,1959.
  • wikipedia.org

 

 

Posted by:

Soma Ghosh

© author

 

 

 

 

 

Terracotta art of Bengal : splendorous images from Bishnupur

       The powerful Gupta empire had broken up by the 6th century. The area of Bengal got divided into different small kingdoms.  Vanga, Samatala anf Harikela in the east. In the west the Gauda kings made their capital at Karnasuvarna(near  present day Murshidabad) Though Shashanka, a vassal of the Guptas unified Gaur,Vanga and Samatala and tried for regional power with Harshvardhana after killing off his elder brother Rajyavardhana, he could not sustain for long. The Gauda power ended in Bengal with Shashanka’s death. From 7th century Malla kings ruled  West of Bengal  and parts of present day Jharkhand and were called the Rajas of  Bishnupur. The word Malla means wrestler and the kingdom was called Mallabhum.  Their main legacy are the awesome terracotta temples. From the 7th century till the 19th century, the Bankura district of present day West Bengal is known by the history of these Rajas.  The Palas were another great dynasty to rule Bengal and Bihar, who were patrons of Buddhism. Dharmapala (710-810 A.D) is its most celebrated emperor. The Palas established universities at Nalanda and Vikramshila. However the Chola and Chalukyan invasions ended their rule in the 11th century. The other dynasties to rule ancient Bengal were the Chandra and the Sena dynasty of southern origin. The Devas, another Hindu dynasty like the Senas, ruled after the collapse of the Sena dynasty.

   Coming to the subject at hand, it is reiterated that the temples were mainly the contribution of the Malla dynasty with Bishnupur as their capital. Some images are depicted to simply wonder at the stucco work, the architecture in mainly brick and the terracotta sculpture. The Bankura horse has become synonymous with Bengal. It is made of terracotta. Terracotta is burnt clay. Bengal artists have perfected this art medium and even today jewellery and plaques are produced.

   The temples were made from brick and covered with terracotta tiles which had scenes from the Hindu epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata and also everyday life. The temples were built by different Rajas of Bishnupur.  The dynasty was founded by Adi Malla and followed by Jay Malla. Upto the 48th ruler they were independent of foreign powers. Bir Hambir, the 49th ruler was a contemporary of Mughal Emperor Akbar in 16th-17th century and paid an annual amount to the Muslim viceroys of Bengal. He was followed by Raghunath Singha, the title of Singha being given to him by the Nawab of Murshidabad. He made Bishnupur a beautiful  city of palaces and temples. Most of the terracotta temples’ presiding deity is Lord Krishna or Radha-Krishna, the names being indicative. The temple with a single spire are called ekratna, five are called pancharatna.

  Rasmancha was the earliest temple, built by Raja Bir Hambir in the 17th century, surrounded by a passage/corridor with hut shaped turrets. The temple has a pyramid shaped shikhara.

Bishnupur Ras Mancha.jpg

Rasmancha,Bishnupur.

Rangan Datta Wiki – নিজের কাজ কর্তৃক, সিসি বাই-এসএ ৪.০, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=51658366

Inside Rashmancha.png

Corridor around Rasmancha, Bishnupur, West Bengal.

Somdeep Gangulee – নিজের কাজ কর্তৃক, সিসি বাই-এসএ ৩.০, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=28704137

 

    The Shyamrai temple is a pancharatna temple built in 1643 by Raja Raghunath Singha. The temple has an ocatgonal central shikhara  and the remaining four are square in shape. Lord Krishna’s life is depicted on the ornate carvings. Each side of the temple has three arches.

Shyam Ray Temple in Bishnupur.jpg

Shyamrai temple,Bishnupur, Bankura  West Bengal.

Jonoikobangali – নিজের কাজ কর্তৃক, সিসি বাই-এসএ ৩.০, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=14941834

Terracotta work on Shyamrai Temple Bishnupur 8.JPG

Terracotta work on Shyamrai Temple, Bishnupur,West Bengal.

Amartyabag – নিজের কাজ কর্তৃক, সিসি বাই-এসএ ৩.০, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18523365

File:Terracotta work on Shyamrai Temple Bishnupur.JPG

Terracotta work on Shyamrai Temple, Bishnupur,West Bengal.

By Amartyabag (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons

 

The Jor Mandir complex has three temples built by Raja Krishna Singha in 1726. 

Jor Mandir, Terracotta temple at Bishnupur,Bankura,West Bengal.

Rangan Datta Wiki – নিজের কাজ কর্তৃক, সিসি বাই-এসএ ৪.০, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=51658364

Works in the pancharatna temple.jpg

Carvings on temple,Bishnupur,West Bengal.

By Dyutiman86 – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=59899301

The Jor Bangla temple was built by Raja Raghunath Singha Dev II in 1655. The temple is admired for its intricate terracotta carvings.

Jor Bangla Temple 2 Bishnupur.JPG

Jor Bangla temple, Bishnupur,West Bengal.

Amartyabag – নিজের কাজ কর্তৃক, সিসি বাই-এসএ ৩.০, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18522459

Jor Bangla Temple Arches Bishnupur.JPG

Temple arches, Jor Bangla, Bishnupur,West Bengal.

Amartyabag – নিজের কাজ কর্তৃক, সিসি বাই-এসএ ৩.০, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18522461

Terracotta work on Jor Bangla temple, Bishnupur 2.JPG

Terracotta work on Jor Bangla temple, Bishnupur,West Bengal.

Amartyabag – নিজের কাজ কর্তৃক, সিসি বাই-এসএ ৩.০, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18522466

Terracotta work on Jor Bangla temple, Bishnupur.JPG

Terracotta work on Jor Bangla temple, Bishnupur,Bankura,West Bengal.

Amartyabag – নিজের কাজ কর্তৃক, সিসি বাই-এসএ ৩.০, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18522464

The Kalachand temple was built in 1656 by Raja Raghunath Singha using laterite.  Laterite is rich in iron and aluminium and the soil type can be used to make brick. Kalachand temple is an ekaratna temple.

Kalachand Temple (side view 2) Arnab Dutta 2011.JPG

Kalachand Temple, Bishnupur, Bankura District, West Bengal.

Jonoikobangali – নিজের কাজ কর্তৃক, সিসি বাই-এসএ ৩.০, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=14929614

       Raghunath Singha was followed by Bir Singha Dev. He made many lakes and the temple of Lalji in 1658 A.D. His queen built the Murali Mohan temple in 1665. His son followed after him as ruler who built the Madan Mohan temple in 1694.

    The Lalji temple was built by Raja Bir Singha as an ekratna in 1658 dedicated to Radha-Krishna, on a square plinth with stucco decorations.

Lalji Temple Up Close.jpg

Lalji temple,Bishnupur,Bankura,West Bengal.

By Agniva Das – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=21054944

Radha Madhab Temple.jpg

Murali-mohan temple, Bishnupur,Bankura,West Bengal.

SuparnaRoyChowdhury – নিজের কাজ কর্তৃক, সিসি বাই-এসএ ৪.০, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=51117741

The Madan-mohan temple was built in 1694 by Raja Durjana Singh Dev. It is an ekratna temple. The carvings on the temple walls have scenes from the Ramayana, Mahabharata and the Puranas.

 

Madanmohan Temple.jpg

Madan Mohan Mandir (1694 AD), Bishnupur, Bankura , West Bengal.

SuparnaRoyChowdhury – নিজের কাজ কর্তৃক, সিসি বাই-এসএ ৪.০, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=51117740

The Radha-gobindo temple was built in 1729 by  Krishna Singha as an ekratna  temple using laterite.

 

Stone Rath at Radha-Gobinda Temple Arnab Dutta 2011.JPG

Radha-Gobindo temple rath,Bishnupur,West Bengal.

Jonoikobangali – নিজের কাজ কর্তৃক, সিসি বাই-এসএ ৩.০, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=14933167 

        Gopal Singh Dev ruled during 1730-45, a very pious ruler. Later Chaitanya Singha Dev ruled who was again very pious. He escaped to Kolkata with the idol of Madan Gopal when his cousin Damodar Singh  tried to gain power.

    The Radha-Madhab temple was built in 1737 by the daughter-in-law of Raja Gopal Singha, Churamoni Devi as an ​​ekratna style with brick having  floral and stucco designs.

 

            The Radha-shyam temple was built in 1758 by Raja Chaitanya Singha as an ekratna temple. It has a dome shaped shikhara  and has Puranic stories and floral designs in stucco on the temple walls.

Radhashyam Temple Entry Arch Bishnupur.JPG

Radha-shyam temple entry arch, Bishnupur,Bankura,West Bengal.

Amartyabag – নিজের কাজ কর্তৃক, সিসি বাই-এসএ ৩.০, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18522507

Stucco work on Radhashyam Temple, Bishnupur 2.JPG

Stucco work on Radha-shyam temple,Bishnupur, Bankura, West Bengal.

Amartyabag – নিজের কাজ কর্তৃক, সিসি বাই-এসএ ৩.০, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18522512

 

References :

  • The art of ancient India/Huntington,Susan,New York : Weatherhill,1985.
  • Indian terracotta art/Ganguly,O.C, Bombay : rupa and Co,1959.
  • wikipedia.org

 

Posted by :

Soma Ghosh

 

© author

 

Radha-Krishna is art : splendorous images

      Radha-Krishna is worshipped in Hinduism as the combination of the male and female principles and many temples are dedicated to them. Works of art on this divine couple have been produced in the past and still continue to grip the imagination of artists.  Their coming together is held as the symbol of the individual’s desire for union with the Supreme or Universal soul. Krishna was first mentioned in the Chandogya upanishad. He is a main character in the epic Mahabharata. In the Vishnu Purana and the Bhagavata purana we further understand his divine nature. The Gita-govinda  in Sanskrit,composed by Jayadeva Goswami in the 12th century, gave the cult worship of Radha-Krishna a mystic and soulful impetus along with the presence of the gopis, the cow-maidens, Radha being the favourite gopi of Krishna. Radha was the wife of Ayanagosha. She is also believed to be the origin of all the gopis who are divine beings who participate in the rasaleela. During the rasaleela it is believed that Krishna took on multiple forms and danced with with each gopi, thus each gopi thought that Krishna loved her the most ! The deseration of the gopis of their husbands and parents signify their liberation from worldly attachments.

       The Radha-Krishna theme has been depicted in Indian art in different schools of art. The images are typical of the school they represent and are vibrant and colourful. The backdrop could be the bank of the Jamuna river at Vrindavan, with gopis and cows. Verdant foliage in idyllic groves are frequently seen. Radha is a doe-eyed beautiful damsel while Krishna is the dark, blue-skinned God with the peacock- feather, garland(vanamala), pearl necklaces and flute.The paintings are akin to visual poetry; depicting scenes from Radha-Krishna episodes by the use of different colours conveying feeling and form. The romantic dalliance of Krishna with Radha and the other gopis including rasaleela is the main subject in the paintings. Gita-govinda is a major inspiration for these paintings. Bhanudatta also composed poetry in Sanskrit on Radha-Krishna. Surdas, Bihari, Keshavdas and Vidyapati’s compositions brought out the romantic persona of Krishna.

      Radha was a shringara rasa nayika, an embodiment of beauty and love. In the Kishangarh paintings Savant Singh (who was a total Krishna bhakt or devotee)and his wife Bani Thani were represented as Radha-Krishna by the court painter Nihal Chand. Bani Thani was an accomplished beautiful dancer and poetess.This influenced the paintings of Nihal Chand though the paintings are not an exact replica of how she looked but more of an idealised form. The nayika has arched eyebrows, elongated nose and a doe-eyed representation. This became the signature style of Kishangarh paintings.

Image result for radha krishna kishangarh

Radha-Krishna, 18th century,Kishangarh painting, Rajasthan.

By Nihal Chand (Madison Avenue Gallery) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons Attributed to Nihal Chand. Savant Singh and Bani Thani as Krishna and Radha. Kishangarh, ca. 1760..jpg

   At Bhim Vilas in Udaipur’s City palace  which was built over 400 years starting in 1559, by different rulers of the Mewar dynasty, a fresco depicts Radha-Krishna. The image  is resplendent with a prominent Krishna and Radha slightly behind him. She is less of a gopi but is seen in a mature lady-like demeanour.

Image result for radha krishna art images

Radha-Krishna, Fresco, 16th- 20th century, City Palace, Udaipur, Rajasthan.

By Pebble101 (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

File:Krishna and Radha in a Bower.jpg

Radha-Krishna in a bower,folio from Gita-govinda, Mewar school, Rajasthan17th century.

By Sahibdin (fl. 17th century) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

        The Rasikapriya was composed by Keshavdas which inspired many paintings on the Radha-Krishna theme. The Rasikapriya was a pioneering work of the Ritikaal period of Hindi literature.In these ritikavyas Radha is not depicted as rustic gopi, but a heroine of courtly love. Ritikavyas in Brajbhasha inspired painting in Rajput courts and Himalayan kingdoms.

Image result for radha krishna image sculpture

Radha- Krishna, page from Rasikapriya, Amber, 1610, Metmuseum, USA.

By anonimus (Metropolitan Museum) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

 

File:2 Krishna Kisses Radha Page from the Boston Rasikapriya Amber 1610 Metmuseum.jpg

Radha-Krishna,page from  Rasikapriya, Amber, 1610, Met Museum, New York, USA

By anonimus (Metropolitan Museum) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Radha-Krishna in a Rasikapriya manuscript, 1634.

By Anonymous – V&A Museum [1], Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4175942

Rajasthani miniature painting centred in Malwa and Bundelkhand in central India flourished in the 17th century; called Malwa miniature painting. The school is typical with its fine brushwork and flat compositions, figures shown against a solid colour patch,the subject painted in vibrant colours.

File:Radha and Krishna 2.jpg

Radha-Krishna, Malwa painting, 1620, Rajasthani school.

See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Krishna and Radha dancing the Rasalila, Jaipur, 19th century.jpg

Radha-Krishna and gopis in Rasaleela, Jaipur, 19th century.

By Anonymous – http://www.artgallery.nsw.gov.au/collection/works/130.1986/, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4179978

              Kangra painting from Himachal Pradesh belongs to Pahari school of painting. The Pahari schools have Mughal and Rajput influences on their work. Radha-Krishna paintings in the Kangra style express piety and are visually evocative. Krishna’s sweetness is captured as a  romantic hero or nayaka. Joy, longing, separation are all represented deftly using colour, feeling and movement amidst nature in Vrindavan in different seasons.

Image result for radha krishna art images

Krishna is playing on his flute while a companion persuades Radha , folio from Gita-govinda, Kangra painting, 1825, Himachal Pradesh.

See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

File:Kangra Painting.jpg

Krishna flirting with other gopis to Radha’s dismay, Kangra, 1760, Himachal Pradesh.

By Attributed to Purkhu [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Image result for radha krishna art images

Radha-Krishna during a thunderstorm, Kangra painting late 17th-mid 18th century.

See page for author [No restrictions or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons. Collection of Brooklyn Museum.

  

File:Radha and Krishna Exchange Clothes LACMA M.80.232.4.jpg

Radha-Krishna exchange clothes,Kangra, 1800, Himachal Pradesh.

See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

 

File:Krishna and Radha looking into a mirror. - Google Art Project.jpg

Radha-Krishna looking into a mirror, Kangra painting, 1800.

See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

 

Basohli style of painting is characterised by a vigorous style in which strong primary colours were used. Mostly made in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries in the foothills of the Western Himalayas and Punjab. Rasamanjari, a Sanskrit text by Bhanudatta on Indian aesthetics,from the 15th century was an inspiration for Basohli paintings. This poetic work classifies young damsels, the nayikas, in love.

 

File:Radha and Krishna in Rasamanjari by Bhanudatta, Basohli, c1670.jpg

Radha-Krishna in Rasamanjari by Bhanudatta, Basohli, 1670.

By Anonymous (Victoria Albert Museum [1]) [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.

Radha and Krishna in Discussion 1.jpg

Radha and Krishna in conversation, Basohli painting,  Gita-govinda, 1730.

By Basohli School – http://www.harekrsna.com/sun/features/01-12/features2332.htm, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=21078305

          Chamba is well-known for its exquisite miniature paintings and murals. The paintings have  a strong Mughal influence. Its main patrons were Raja Udai Singh and Raja Jai Singh. Radha-Krishna,gopis, Shiva Parvati, nature representations with deer, birds were common themes.

Radha Rejecting Krishna LACMA M.77.19.25.jpg

Radha rejecting Krishna, Chamba painting,Himachal Pradesh,1760.

By Image: http://collections.lacma.org/sites/default/files/remote_images/piction/ma-31960415-O3.jpgGallery: http://collections.lacma.org/node/238755, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=27306009

    The Awadh(Oudh) school of painting which flourished in the 18th and 19th centuries at Awadh in Northern India was a combination of Mughal and Rajput styles, with lot of Persian influence, representations are seen in the canopies and shamianas, ground covered with flowers etc. The Rajput influence can be recognised by the stylised nature of the painting. Niddha Mal was a painter of this time and is known for his Radha-Krishna paintings. The later Awadh styles showed major European influence. Meer Chand was a noted artist during this period.

Image result for radha krishna art images

Radha-Krishna, with gopis, at the Holi festival, Awadh, 19th century.

See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

       Kalighat painting is a mix of tradition and modern styles. The artists evolved a typical style of paintings in the vicinity of the Kali temple during the nineteenth century at Calcutta (now Kolkata). The paintings are simple yet modern but striking.

Brooklyn Museum - Krishna and Radha - 2.jpg

Radha-Krishna,Kalighat painting,late 19th century and early 20th century.

By Unknown – Online Collection of Brooklyn Museum; Photo: Brooklyn Museum, 2000.98.3_IMLS_PS4.jpg, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=14623135

     Madhubani painting is done on walls or paper mostly by women of Madhuban,part of ancient kingdom of Mithila, now in  Bihar. Mostly done in natural colours, these paintings are a form of visual education and enrichment. The subjects are many including scenes from the epics, the Radha-Krishna theme, flora and fauna etc. The paintings are rustic and vibrant with the use of bold lines and colours.

Image result for lakshmi images in sculpture

Radha-Krishna, Madhubani painting by Sita Devi, 2oth century.

By Sumanjha1991 – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=47963002

Image result for radha krishna art images

Radha-Krishna, print of painting by Sri Gopal Rao, 1927.

By Gopalarao (http://www.gopalarao.com/painting8.html) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

      Pattachitras are from Odisha and have been traditionally made using natural ingredients like china clay, chalk,conch shell, red stone etc. Lord Krishna is Lord Jagannatha at Puri and there are many pattachitras with Subhadra and Balaram and Lord Krishna. However Radha is not forgotten and Radha-Krishna; inspired by the Chaitanya movement and Gita -govinda too is depicted in pattachitras.

Image result for radha krishna patachitra

Radha-Krishna, pattachitra, by artist Shakti.

By Shakti (Own work) [CC BY-SA 1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0) or CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons

Radha-krishna.jpg

Radha-Krishna, modern depiction, drawing by artist Subhash.

By Subhash – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=38462855

References :

  • Thomas, P/Epics, myths and legends of India, Bombay : D. B. Taraporevala and Sons.
  • Dehejia, Harsha.V/Radha: Gopi to Goddess,New Delhi :Niyogi Books,2014.
  • Aryan, Subhashini/Kala Chintan New Delhi : Rekha Prakashan,2008.
  • wikipedia.org
  • shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in

 

 

Posted by:

Soma Ghosh

© author