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Stambhas in architecture : depictions from India

 

          Stambha is a column with cosmic connotations, a connection between heaven and earth. Stambhas have been mentioned in early Hindu literature like the Atharvaveda.

    Stambhas are of different types; dhwaja stambha, kirtistambha, vijaystambha, deepastambha and the stambhas of King Ashoka.

   The dhwaja stambhas are placed in front of the main deity of a temple; kirti/vijay stambhas usually commemorate victories. The Ashoka pillars depict the royal edicts of King Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty. The deepa stambhas are lit up on festival days at temples.

  There is a magnificent vijaystambha ot tower of victory, also referred to as kirtistambha or tower of glory at Chittorgarh Fort in Rajasthan dedicated to Lord Vishnu. Built by Rana Kumbha in 1448 to celebrate his victory over Mahmud Khilji fighting the armies of Malwa and Gujarat. The tower was designed by architect Sutradhar Jaita. The genealogy of the kings of Chittor and names of the architect and carved on the tower.

The image of Padmavati, Jain Goddess is on the top story. The word Allah is also carved in the third and eight stories.

     The Ashoka pillars were columns built by Maurya king and emperor Ashoka during 3rd century B.C. These pillars were inscribed with his edicts. Nineteen pillars still exist with the inscriptions. Six of them have lion capitals and some had the bull. The pillars weigh 50 tonnes in weight and were average 15 m in height. They were transported between large distances to their destinations. The pillars were carved out of red-white or buff-coloured  sandstone, mostly at Buddhist monasteries after being brought from Chunar and Mathura. 

 

Ashoka pillar, 3rd century B.C.,Vaishali(without edict), Bihar.

By Bpilgrim (talk · contribs) – Own work, CC BY-SA 2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1763101

 

 

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Ashoka pillar at Allahabad, 1870 image.

By Thomas A. Rust – British Library, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=35791625

 

Lion Pillar on the way to the Dhauli Giri.JPG

Ashoka pillar with lion capital near Bhubaneshwar,3rd century B.C.,Odisha.

By Amit Bikram Kanungo – my digital camera, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=21228830

The Ashoka pillar of 13 m height, at  Ferozeshah Kotla at Delhi was originally at Topra in Ambala from where it was brought and reinstalled at Delhi by Feroze Shah.

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Ashoka pillar, Ferozeshah Kotla, Delhi.
By Anupamg – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=51531041
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Inscriptions on Ashoka pillar.
By Dhamijalok – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=21346736
File:VijaystambhIMG 0324.jpg

 

Vijay stambh, 15th century, Chittorgarh, Rajasthan.

By Praxipat (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons

At the Virupaksha temple at Pattadakal in Karnataka is a victory pillar with inscriptions from the eighth century. The inscription relates the victory of Vikramaditya II of the Badami Chalukya over the Pallavas of Kanchipuram.

 

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Victory pillar with inscriptions, 8th century, Pattadakal, Karnataka.

By Dineshkannambadi at English Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4725456

      A brahma stambha stands in front of the Parsvanatha Basti on top of the Chandragiri Hill at Sravanabelogola in Karnataka’s Hassan district. The temple was built in the 11th century and is called Kamata Pasrvanatha Basti.The image of Parsvanatha stands on a lotus pedestal. Lord Parsvanatha is  the 23rd Jain Tirthankara and who had an encounter with his enemy Kamata. In late 17th century a manasthambha, also referred to as Brahmastambha facing the temple, 65 feet in height was erected.

Brahma stambha (Pillar) near the Parsvanatha Basadi at Shravanabelgola.jpg

Brahmastambha, 17th century,Hassan, Karnataka.

By HoysalaPhotos – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=21740722

     The Kolaramma temple is dedicated to Goddess Parvati worshipped as Kolaramma. She is the presiding deity of Kolar in Karnataka. It was built 1000 years ago. by the Cholas. Ornately carved statues from granite stone, lend splendour to the temple which the Maharajas of Mysore used to visit regularly. The second deity at the temple is Chellamma who protects from scorpion-bites. The Hundi of the temple is believed to have a large hole dug into the earth from where one can still hear the sounds of the coins collected over hundred of years.

 

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Dhwajastambha, Kolaramma temple, Kolar, Karnataka.

By Gautamoncloud9 – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=21526497

   In the Hutheesing Jain temple at Ahmedabad,Gujarat which was built in 1848 dedicated to the 15th  Jain Tirthankara,Dharmanatha. Hutheesing was a rich trader who helped traders by building the temple so that they could be engaged in work during drought which lasted two years. Designed by Premchand Salat, the main building is  double storied. The temple houses 11 deities and an additional 52 shrines. The temple has a manastambha or a column of honour.

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Manastambha,Hutheesing Jain Temple

By Vaishal Dalal – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=17907102

 

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Deepastambha, Harsiddhi Mata Temple, Ujjain.

By Gyanendra_Singh_Chauhan (http://www.panoramio.com/photo/41416750) [CC BY 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons

    The Shantadurga or Santeri temple near Panjim in Goa is dedicated to Goddess Shantadurga who is believed to have mediated to stop the quarrel Between Lord Shiva and Lord Vishnu of the Hindu trinity. The temple was built during the reign of King Shahu, grandson of Shivaji in the 18th century between 1713 to 1738. The temple had undergone many modifications and Neo-classical architecture can also be seen. On the left side of the courtyard is a deepastambha which is lit up with oil lamps on festival days.

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Deepastambha,Shantadurga temple, 18th century, Goa.

By Netguru – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=21127897

References :

  • wikipedia.com
  • indiathatwas.com

 

 

Posted by :

Soma Ghosh

 

© author

 

 

 

 

 

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Bygone splendour : a history of the Satavahanas

       The Satavahanas were a South Indian dynasty who ruled for four and a half centuries. They were next to the Mauryas in authority and managed to ward off invaders and ensured peace in Dakshinapatha (southern region of the Indian peninsula) Their age had high economic prosperity, Puranic theism became prominent, Mahayana Buddhism which was more universal became prominent than Hinayana Buddhism. Prakrit flourished as the official language though Sanskrit too gained importance. Their sculptural and aesthetic brilliance can be gauged by their contributions at Amaravati, Bhaja, Nashik, Pitalkhora and Sanchi.

         The sources of the age are scanty and sometimes not reliable and there seems to be difference of opinion between historians. Numismatic evidence is found and the record at Nashik are considered the most important. The Kathasaritsagara is believed to be based on the Prakrit text Brihatkatha from Satavahana times.The Yugapurana of the Gargisamhita and early Jain literature contain information about the Satavahana kings. The times are also reflected in Hala’s Gathasaptasati and Kamasutra of Vatsyayana.

          The inscriptions found of the Satavahanas are around 25 out of which only few are royal records and the others are of private individuals. Most of them are Buddhist in content. The Junagadh inscription of Rudraraman notes the last Saka-Satavahana war. Neighbouring Kalinga King Kharavela mentions their conflict with the Satavahanas in the Hathigumpha inscription at Udaigiri Odisha. Satavahana time coins have been found at places like Nevasa, Kondapur, Maski, Tripuri, Amaravati and Nagarjunakonda. These coins validate the historicity of the rulers as mentioned in the Puranas. However though sometimes unclear, numismatic evidence helps in finding the racial affinities and how the empire disintegrated etc. The Matsya Purana says that altogether 30 kings ruled for 470 years. Vayupurana says 17 rulers and 270 years of rule. The early historians identify the Satavahanas with the Andhras and that they flourished in the Krishna-Godavari region of Eastern Deccan. Their seat of power was Srikakulam or Dhanyakataka. Later historians differ saying they were servants of the Andhras as they are mentioned as Andhrabhrityas in the Puranas. However the Satavahanas is the name of a family and they ruled Andhra, who were vassals of the Mauryas. They inherited the Prakrit language from them. The Puranas indicate that Sirimukha was the founder of the dynasty. He has also been called Sisuka,Srimukha, Chismoka etc.The inscriptions on the relievo-figures at Nanaghat refer to him as Sirimukha Satavahana. This could be interpreted as : son of Satavahana. Satavahana ruled from Paithan, as a vassal of King Asoka of the Mauryas and later consolidated the position for declaring  independence in the Deccan with his son Sirimukha as successor; around 230 B.C. Punch marked coins are attributed to him. He ruled for 23 years; built stupas and viharas for Jainas. He changed his religion during his last days. He was succeeded by his brother Kanha(208-198 B.C) because his son Satakarni was of a young age. He ruled for ten years and his minister or mahamatra got carved a cave for monks at Nashik.

         Satakarni I succeeded him who was most illustrious among the early Satavahanas. His queen Naganika described him as virasura in the Nanaghat inscription recorded after his death. He ruled for 18 years and tried to expand his kingdom; came into conflict with King Kharavela of Kalinga but managed to keep his empire intact. He conducted many sacrifices and worked for the welfare of the Brahmin community. He conducted many sacrifices. He died leaving behind four young sons;Kumara Hakusiri, Sati Srimat, Kumara Satavahana and Vedisiri (the eldest) or Purnotasanga (179 B.C- 161 B.C) who succeeded him and ruled independently.The sons partitioned the empire. Rani Naganika was regent with her father Maharathi Tranakayiro who assisted her in guiding the empire

         Satakarni II was another great king who ruled for 56 years and who restored unity in the split dominions of the empire. Many kings ruled between this king and Gautamiputra Satakarni. Some names include Apilaka, Meghasvati,Kuntala Satakarni,Pulomavi,Hala Satavahana etc. The kingdom went into eclipse between King Hala and Gautamiputra Satakarni, the 26th ruler of the dynasty. This was due to the invasion of the Sakas from the Indus region. The famous work Periplus of the Erythrean Sea  by a Greek sailor, notes these conflicts.

          Gautamiputra Satakarni revived the empire (106 A.D to 130 A.D) and is remembered as one of India’s greatest monarchs. Number of coins found in the Deccan area along with the Nashik Prasasti recorded by his mother Bala Sri give a picture of his reign. As per the Nashik Prasasti, the Satavahana kingdom was limited to the region east of Paithan, parts of Andhradesa and Kalinga, at the time he ascended the throne. However, he undertook many campaigns and destroyed the Kshaharatas defeating Nahapa and recovered regions upto Malwa. His empire extended between Aravalis to the Nilgiris from Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal. He was a skilled archer, learned in the Vedas, a dutiful son and a benevolent king.

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Gautamiputra Satakarni celebrating his victory on Nahapa, a satrap of Gujarat in Western India,artist’s impression.

By Ambrose Dudley [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

        Gautamiputra Satakarni was succeeded by his son Vasistiputra Pulomavi II. He came into conflict  with Chastana and lost Malwa and Saurastra to the Kardamakas. But as per the Nasik and Karle inscriptions Pulomavi retained his control over Maharashtra. He was succeeded by Sivasri or Vasistiputra Satakarni; many coins found in Andhra region bearing his legend have been found. He was most likely a brother of Pulomavi II. He attempted to recover same Satavahana dominions from the Kardamakas.

        As per the Puranic sources Sri Yajna Satakarni is the last great king of the Satavahana dynasty. He had a reign of 29 years and flourished in the last quarter of 2nd century. He is known from inscriptions at Nashik, Kanheri and a large number of coins from all over Deccan, Madhya Pradesh, Berar, Baroda etc. He conquered Central and Western Deccan and the Narmada valley. He patronised Acharya Nagarjuna for who he built a mahachaitya and a mahavihara at Sriparvata (Nagajunakonda). Acharya Nagarjuna built the stone railing around the great stupa at Amaravati. Vijaya Satakarni succeeded him. The process of disintegration of the empire had started in the reign of Pulomavi II and speeded up as subordinate ruling families such as the Kuras of Kolhapur, Chutuis of Banavasi and Ishkavakus of Vijaypuri became formidable and got greater powers for themselves. Vijaya was succeeded by Chandra Sri followed by Puloma and is the last king as per the Puranas. After Sri Yajna the kingdom got divided into independent units under the collateral branches of the dynasty.

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Vashistiputra Pulomavi inscribed on coin.

By PHGCOM [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

          The Satavahanas followed Kautilya’s Arthasastra and manavadharma sastra and was a     hereditary monarchy; the king was called called raja or maharaja. There were autonomous units, though the main empire was under the direct rule of the king who had officers like viswasamatyas, rajamatyas and mahamatras who were officers on special duties. Land revenue was the main source of income for the king’s treasury.

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Royal ear-rings from 1st Century BC India.

By PHGCOM – self-made, photographed at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3032128

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Indian ship on lead coin of Vasistiputra Pulomavi.

By PHGCOM [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commonsimage009

Vasisitiputra Satakarni inscribed on coin.

By Uploadalt – Own work, photographed at British Museum, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=12223527

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Coin of  Sri Yajna Satakarni.

By The original uploader was Per Honor et Gloria at English Wikipedia (Transferred from en.wikipedia to Common.

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Satavahana empire.

CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons

     The Satavahanas carried on internal trade and external trade and Nashik, Paithan, Tagara, Govardhana were market towns. They encouraged maritime activities and had ship-marked coins. The Satavahanas imported wines from Rome. They also imported tin, lead,coral and topaz. They exported ivory, agate, carnelian, pepper,silk etc.

       All religions flourished during their rule. The Satavahanas used Prakrit, Sanskrit and also Telugu and Kannada.

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An aniconic depiction of Mara’s assault on Lord Buddha, Amaravati, 2nd century.

CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=378416

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Panduleni caves, Nashik, Maharashtra.

By Rashmi.parab – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=21747608

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Images of Jain Tirthankaras at Panduleni complex ,Maharashtra

by Raama – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=7975011

The artistic achievements of the age can be seen from the remains of stupas, chaityas and viharas. Buddhism flourished during the Satavahanas. At Amaravati a renowned centre of Buddhism, a unique school of art evolved. The stupa ia monument built on the remains of the Buddha or an eminent Buddhist monk. The stupas were built of brick; Jataka tales and scenes from Lord Buddha’s life were sculpted.

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Mahastupa relief from Amaravati at museum in Chennai, Tamil Nadu.

By Soham Banerjee [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commonsimage023

Remnants of Mahastupa at Amaravati, Andhra Pradesh.

By Adityamadhav83 (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons

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Donor couples, Karle caves, Maharashtra.

By Amitmahadik100 – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=28220816

      Chaityas was a Buddhist temple with a stupa as the object of worship. They were covered out of rock at Nasik, Kanheri, Karle, Bhaja, Junnar, Mahad etc. Chaityas have a rectangular hall and divided into nave,apse and the side aisle. The apse has a solid stupa.  Amaravati and Nagarjunakonda had brick stupas. Viharas cut out of rock with an open verandah and a hall surrounded on three sides by rows of cells having benches made of stone.; monks resided in them.

      The Ajanta chaitya can be dated to around 1st century B.C. The Pandulena chaitya is of 1st century A.D. Motifs are carved around the arch and above the entrance are seen sockets and grooves most probably for the musician’s gallery. At Karle, the early Hinayana chaitya is a gift of a merchant of Vaijayanti (present Banavasi). At the front are two huge lion pillars, the hall having a vestibule with three entrances. Exquisitely carved donor couples are seen on the front wall. At Kanheri, rock cut activity began during Yajna Sri Satakarni’s reign during second half of 2nd century A.D. The 3rd chaitya is attributed to him.

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Chaitya at Karle, Maharashtra.

By Amitmahadik100 – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=28220810

         The art of the Satavahana era was affected by the state of polity. The art  at Bhaja and Amaravati was mostly during the reign of Satakarni I. The early caves at Pitalkhora and Ajanta were executed during  reign of Sirimukha and Satakarni I, so also the earliest sculpture at  Amaravati. Sanchi, located 9 km from Vidisha, an important ancient town during Maurya and Sunga empires, the gateways or toranas were erected during the reign of Satakarni II in 1st century B. C. The Satavahana creations are very grand. The rock-cut temples are in a good state in Maharashtra; the Sanchi stupa has been reconstructed; the Amaravati stupa remains can be seen in museums. Some sculpture examples include a yaksha from Pitalkhora, the Bhaja Vihara caves decorated with carvings and pillars with a lotus capital crowned with mythical animals. Some ivory objects found at Begram(ancient Kapisha) in Afghanistan show  clearly the influence of Satavahana art, both Sanchi and Amaravati styles.

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Great Stupa with torana, Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh.

By Suvro Banerjee – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=49228316

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Lord Indra, Bhaja caves, Maharashtra.

By Amitmahadik100 – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=28220002

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Begram ivory, Afghanistan.

By PHG at English Wikipedia – Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons., Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=7048722

References :

  • The age of the Satavahanas/Dr. B. S.L. Hanumatha Rao, Hyderabad: P.S.Telugu University, 2001.
  • Satavahana Art/M.K. Dhavalikar/Delhi : Sharda Publishing House,2004.

Posted by :

Soma Ghosh