Category Archives: Ram-Sita

Happy Diwali – Lord Rama comes home

         Diwali is celebrated with great excitement and festivity in India. The day marks the return of Lord Rama to his capital Ayodhya with his wife Sita, brother Lakshmana and Hanuman, the leader of his vanarasena or monkey army after his win in battle over Ravana, the lord of Lanka.After the battle between Lord Rama and Ravana, Ravana was ultimately killed by Rama and Vibhishana, his brother was made the king of Lanka. It is recalled that the city was lit with thousands of lamps on his return.

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Every year this day is commemorated across India. This is as mentioned in the epic Ramayana, the part of the story from Uttarakanda, the final chapter in the epic tale by Sage Valmiki. Lord Rama comes back in his Pushpakvimana to be coronated as king to Ayodhya. Presented here are some amazing depictions of the return of Rama and his coronation which led to his rule of thousand years also called Ramarajya, a glorious rule.


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Lord Rama starting to return to Ayodhya, Kangra miniature, late 18th century, The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, U K.

       The Pushpakvimana has been described as a self-moving painted car, which was large with two storeys and few chambers in it, also with flags and colourful banners, and gave a melodious sound as it made its way across the sky.


Shri Ramachandra or Lord Rama seen on Pushpakvimana with his wife Sita, brother Lakshmana, Hanuman and others, print, Modern Litho Works, Bombay , early 20th century.

The Uttarakanda narrates that Lord Rama reached the kingdom of Ayodhya along with Lakshmana, Sita, Hanuman, Sugriva, Vibhishana and the host of monkeys.  After he reaches his kingdom, his brother Bharata who has waited from him to come back restores the kingdom to his elder brother. After that the preparations for the actual coronation begin;  royal barbers are called and Lord Rama and Lakshmana are bathed, shorn of their matted locks and dressed in splendid robes; Dasharatha’s queens deck Sita with  jewellery  and the priests give orders for the coronation to take place.


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Return of Lord Rama, miniature painting, Sahib Din, 17th century, British Library, London, U.K.

”Making use of Ravana’s flying chariot, the exiles have left Lanka and flown swiftly northwards, the directional imperative now being from right to left. Reunited with Bharata and Shatrughna, who have kept Rama’s kingdom for him during the fourteen years of exile, they enter Ayodhya in triumph. They drive through the bazaars with their festive hangings to the palace where they are received by their mothers. Even Kaikeyi is forgiven. The monkey king Sugriva, his minister Hanuman and the other chief monkeys have assumed human form. Rama’s coronation begins his auspicious reign, a truly golden age for mankind – Ram-raj , Rama’s rule”…The British Library.


Return of Lord Rama in a pushpaka vimana and preparations for his coronation, miniature painting,  Mewar, Rajasthan, 17th century.

      The Uttarakanda further narrates that Lord Rama as king was visited by many sages from far and near,they came from east and west and north and south, led by Sage Agastya, and Lord Rama venerated them and provided them with seats of sacrificial grass and gold-embroidered deer-skin. Then the sages praised him as he had won the battle and also slain  Ravana, the sons of Ravana, and had delivered men and gods from fear.

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Lord Rama’s as King of Ayodhya, artwork, 1940s.

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Woman holding sparklers, India, 19th century, Honolulu Museum of Art, U S A.



  • Images are from Wikimedia Commons, (lamps image)



Posted by :

Soma Ghosh





Hanuman in art : some depictions

        Hanuman is Lord Rama’s greatest devotee,  is his chief support after his brother Lakshmana, in the Hindu epic Ramayana. He has been depicted in art;sculpture and paintings over the centuries.He is also mentioned in many ancient texts, including the Mahabharata,the Puranas and certain Jaina texts.Hanuman participated in Rama’s war against the demon king Ravana to liberate his wife Sita.

     Hanuman is the son of Anjana and Kesari and also referred to as Pavanputra or son the the wind-God Vayu or Pavan who has played a role in his birth. Hanuman is known by many names; Anjaneya, Kesarinandan, Bajrang Bali, Jitendriyam, Marutinandan, Sankat mochan among others.

     Hanuman was born to Anjaneri mountain. His mother Anjana was an apsara who was born on earth owing to a curse. She was however freed from it after she gave birth to a son. As per the Ramayana of Valmiki his father Kesari was the son of Brihaspati and the King of a place named Sumeru. Anjana prayed for 12 long years to Lord Shiva for a child and Hanuman was the son they got.It is also believed that Hanuman is the incarnation or reflection of  Lord Shiva.

           Hanuman is also called the son of Vayu or Pavan. As per one version mentioned in the 16th century Bhavartha Ramayana by Eknath it is said that when Anjana was worshipping Shiva, the King  Dasaratha of Ayodhya was also performing Putrakama yagna in order to have children. As a result, he received some sacred payasam (sweet pudding)to be shared by his three wives, which led to the birth of Rama, Lakshmana and Bharata. However a kite was flying past and took away a fragment of the pudding and dropped it into the hands of Anjana while she was praying in a forest, and the wind God or Vayu facilitated this. It is also believed that by  Shiva’s direction, Vayu transferred his male energy to Anjana‘s womb. So Hanuman is also called Pavanputra or son of the Wind.


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Hanuman carrying the mountain of herbs,sculpture,10th century, Madhya Pradesh,LACMA,USA.

See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

        As a child Hanuman was fascinated with the sun and thought it was a ripe fruit. He tried to reach it to eat it and was stopped by the Vedic planet Rahu. However Hanuman beat Rahu who approached Indra for help. Indra threw his weapon Vajra at him and this hurt his jaw or Hanu, thus he also got his name, Hanuman. However Vayu, the wind-God got angry and withdrew which suffocated everyone. Indra had to remove the effect of his vajra and the devas revived Hanuman.

   Hanuman‘s role in the Ramayana is mentioned in Sundarakanda in the epic. Hanuman is also mentioned in the Mahabharata;he is Bhima’s brother.

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Hanuman worshipping Lord Rama and Sita,painting, 17th century,Smithsonian collection,USA.

See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

            Hanuman meets Lord Rama during his exile.With his brother Lakshmana, Rama is searching for his wife Sita who had been abducted by demon king,Ravana. Their search brings them to mountain Rishyamukha, where Sugriva, along with his followers  are hiding from his elder brother Vali.Sugriva sends Hanuman to ascertain their identities. Hanuman approaches Rama disguised as a brahmin. However he reveals his identity and falls at his feet. Hanuman then forges  friendship between Lord Rama and Sugriva; Rama helps Sugriva regain his honour and makes him the king of Kishkindha. Sugriva and his vanaras, most notably Hanuman, help Rama defeat Ravana at Lanka and liberate and reunite with his wife Sita.

    Many incidents take place  during the search for Sita . Hanuman reaches Lanka through air jumps and finds Sita in captivity in a garden, Hanuman reveals his identity to her, reassures her that Rama has been looking for her,  offers to carry her back to Rama, but she refuses his offer, saying it would be an insult to Rama as his honour is at stake. In order to reassure  Sita,  Hanuman gives her a ring that Rama  had sent through him.

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Hanuman being taken to Ravana,illustration,17th century,Mewar,Rajasthan.

By Maharaja of Jagat Singh [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

When Lakshmana is badly wounded during the battle against Indrajit, Hanuman is sent to fetch the sanjivani, a powerful life-restoring herb, from Dronagiri  in the Himalayas, to revive him.

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Hanuman with the mountain of herbs ,print,1910.

By Ravi Varma Press [Public domain], via Wikimedia CommonsHanumanImage result for ramayana

Hanuman visits Sita,bazaar art,early 20th century.

By bazaar art [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

              After his coronation after returning to Ayodhya following his victorious battle against demon king Ravana, Rama decides to reward all his well-wishers.  Hanuman approaches without wanting any reward. Rama embraces him warmly, declaring that he could never  repay Hanuman for the help a received from the  vanara army. Sita, however, insists that Hanuman deserved honour more than anyone else, and Sita gives him a necklace of precious stones which she herself was wearing. Hanuman tears it apart, and inspects each stone. Everyone asks why he is destroying the precious necklace. Hanuman says he was looking into the stones to make sure that Rama and Sita are in them, because if they are not, the necklace is of no value to him. People laugh at Hanuman, saying his reverence and love for Rama and Sita could not possibly be as deep as he says. To this, Hanuman tears his chest open, and everyone is astonished to see Lord Rama and Sita in his chest.


Pushpakviman, bazaar art,1910.

By Modern Litho Works, Bombay [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

      Hanuman is worshipped by many; by wrestlers for his strength.There are many temples of Hanuman, and his images are  installed at all temples where images of avatars of Lord Vishnu are present. His temples free the area of evils like the rakshasas or demons. He is believed to protect from accidents and his images are found on mountain roads.

     Many prayers, mantras are dedicated to Hanuman. These include  Hanuman Chalisa, Bajranga Baan, Maruti Strotam, Anjaneya Dandakam , Vadvanal Strotam, Hanuman Sathhika, Hanuman Bahuk, Hanuman Dwadesha, Bhimrupi Strotam, Sundara Kanda, Maruti Gayatri Mantra, Hanumansahasranam stotra , Ek-mukhi Hanuman Raksha Kavacham, Pancha-mukhi Hanuman Raksha Kavacham and Sapta-mukhi Hanuman Raksha Kavacham.

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Hanuman, silver amulet,early 20th century,Rajasthan.

By Vassil – Own work, Public Domain,

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Hanuman showing Lord Rama in his chest,oleograph,1945.

By Anant Shivaji Desai, Ravi Varma Press ( [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons


References :

  • Epics, myths and legends of India/Thomas, P, Bombay : D.B. Taraporevala and Sons.

Posted by:

Soma Ghosh

© author





Ram-Sita in art : varied depictions

      Rama is the main protagonist in the great Indian epic, Ramayana of Hinduism. Rama is believed to be  the seventh avatar of Vishnu from the Hindu trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva.The Ramayana is the story of his ideals, his greatness, his life events,  his marriage, his exile, the abduction of his wife Sita and his battle with Ravana.  Scriptures and texts based on the Ramayana exist in many cultures in south Asia.

   Rama was the eldest son of King Dasaratha and Kaushalya of  Kosala (area in present day Uttar Pradesh). Rama is considered to be a perfect man and Sita is considered to be an avatar of Goddess Lakshmi  and a great woman. Rama is revered for his exemplary courage and devotion to religious values, dharma.  Lord Rama faces many obstacles and hardships in his life, serves an exile of fourteen arduous years in the forest along with his wife Sita and brother Lakshmana. During this time ,Sita is abducted by Ravana, the king of Lanka. After a long search and with the help of Hanuman, his devotee, she if found there and after a colossal battle with monkey armies where Ravana is killed, he frees Sita. He finally returns to Ayodhya and is crowned to rule with justice and prosperity ; the period is called Rama-rajya.

  Lord Rama is known by other names as Raghava, Raghunandan, Siyavaara, Dasarathaputra, Maryada-purushottama among others.

Lord Rama,painting, probably Thanjavur or Tiruchirapally,Tamil Nadu,early 19th century.

See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

              The epic Ramayana is composed by the sage  Valmiki. The Bhagavata purana retells the events up to the defeat of Ravana and Rama’s coronation in Ayodhya. As per the  Vishnu purana, Lord Rama is the seventh  avatar of Vishnu.The stories of Rama are mentioned in the Mahabharata too. In Buddhist texts the Dasaratha Jataka mentions Rama.

  Sita,also known as Siya, Vaidehi, Janaki, Maithili or Bhoomija, is the wife of Rama in Ramayana. She is the daughter of King Janaka of Videha and his wife Sunaina. She is revered for her feminine virtues,dedication, self-sacrifice, courage and purity.Sita has been a much revered figure amongst the Hindus. She has been portrayed as an ideal daughter, an ideal wife and an ideal mother in various texts and stories. Sita is often worshipped with Rama as his consort, as Ram-Sita.

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Marriage of Rama and his brothers,Mandi artists,1750.

By Mandi Artists [Public domain], via Wikimedia CommonsFile:Rama taking leave of Dasharatha.jpg

Rama taking leave of Dasaratha,painting,late 16th century.

By Asian Art at the San Diego Museum of Art [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

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Rama,Sita and Lakshmana in exile,painting,19th century.

By Raja Ravi Press [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

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Ravana visiting Sita as an ascetic,oleograph,19th century.

By Raja Ravi Varma ( [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

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Ravana approaching Sita during her captivity,painting,20th century.

Nina Paley [CC BY-SA 3.0 (, via Wikimedia Commons

            Various versions of the Ramayana exist in major Indian languages. In Tamil the epic poem Ramavataram by 12th century poet Kambar, the Ramcharitmanas by Tulsidas in the 16th century in Hindi  have been celebrated. Some contemporary versions too have gained importance like Shri Ramayana darshanam by Kuvempu in Kannada and Ramayana kalpavriksham by Viswanatha Satyanarayana in Telugu. 

   Ancient sources say that Rama was born in the end of Tretayuga ,880 thousand years ago. However Ramayana in its current form is dated to 7th-4th century B.C.


Rama,Sita and Lakshmana at Rishi Bharadwaj ashram, painting, Kangra,Himachal Pradesh,18th century.

By Anonymous [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

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Lakshmana and Sita leave Ayodhya,painting,Kangra, early 19th century, Honolulu Academy of Arts,USA.

See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

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Sita during agnipariksha, painting, Mughal school,1600s.

See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

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Ram-Sita, bazaar art image,1950.

See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Rama,Lakshmana and Sita setting up their house at Panchavati, illustration,Mewar,17th century.

By Sahib Din – he Mewar Ramayana manuscripts, Public Domain,


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Rama and Sita, Kalighat painting, 19th century,Kolkata.

By Unknown – The Bodleian Libraries, Oxford, CC BY 4.0,



References :

  • Epics, myths and legends of India/Thomas, P, Bombay : D.B. Taraporevala and Sons.


Posted by :

Soma Ghosh


© author