Category Archives: Mughal art

Mughal glass – delicate images of elegance

           Ever laid eyes on a delicate piece of glass with floral motifs worked out in goldwork and other colours? Most probably it would be an object from the Mughal times. The Mughal empire has ruled India for a considerable amount of time (1526 to 1858 A.D) They have left an indelible mark on the country’s history. Their designs still fascinate and remain etched as part of Indian art and architecture. The art was included in objects of utility and function too. They had special karkhanas or workshops where artisans worked.

Though glass has been in use since prehistoric times in the Indian subcontinent the Mughlas seem to have taken it to another level. It was used mostly to make beads, bangles and trinkets. The opulent era of the Mughals changed that by using the medium to make luxury tableware and huqqa bases (hubble bubble).

File:Base for a Water Pipe (hookah) - Guimet Museum - Mughal period - Accession number MA 6802.jpg

Mughal huqqa base, glass, Muisee Guimet, Paris.

     During the rule of Emperor Jahangir (1605 to 1627) and Emperor Shahjahan (1628 to 1658) and Aurangzeb(1658 to 1707), the fashining of Mughal glass and trade flourished. Paintings of the Mughal era depict the courts and royal spaces used by the emperors and the nobility. One can spot the vessels and cups for pouring liquids like sherbets and the wine cups and ”huqqas” or water pipes.

Image result for high resolution mughal miniature paintings"

 An enthroned Mughal prince with four attendants, glass objects and vessels can be seen, Walters Art Museum, Maryland, U.S.A, Mughal miniature painting.

images (1).jpeg

Mughal huqqa base, glass, LACMA, USA.

          Different varieties of glass were present at the Mughal courts. Venetian, Spanish, English,Persian et al. Other than imports glass items were manufactures in India too. The Ain-i-Akbari by Abul Fazl mentions that glass was manufactured at Bihar and Alwar in Rajasthan. Glass bottles  were also made in English and Dutch factories in Patna and at Gujarat during the 2nd half of the 17th century. The early 18th century saw more manufactories being started. Mughal glass vessels are found in many museums and private collections across the world.

File:Base for a Water Pipe (huqqa) LACMA M.76.2.23.jpg

Mughal huqqa base, clear glass with gilding,over shaped appliqué glass pieces and blue glass insets, 1700s, LACMA, U.S.A.

Mughal cups, cobalt blue glass with gilt floral decoration, early 18th century, V and A Museum, London.

Mughal gilt glass bottle, Gujarat, 18th century.

File:Water-Pipe Base LACMA M.76.2.22.jpg

India, Mughal empire, translucent glass with molded and wheel-cut decoration, 1700s, LACMA, U S A.

 

References :

 

 

Posted by:

Soma Ghosh

©author

 

Floral forays : glimpses from the Taj

         Much has been written about the Taj Mahal, India’s iconic Mughal monument. A testament to love as it is believed, made by an emperor, Emperor Shahjahan for his favourite queen, Mumtaz Mahal or Arjumand Bano Begum. One is awestruck on seeing the Taj made from marble from Makrana which depicts so many elements of art and architecture. One can see domes, arches, minarets, windows, ceiling designs, parchin kari or pietra dura, calligraphy, Islamic geometry. Also jaali or trellis work. The finial on top of the biggest dome is also very ornate. Different views from the Taj show the beautiful embellishment and the exquisite use of marble to create this awesome wonder of the world. This mausoleum or rauza is one of the finest monuments of the world.

          This famous edifice is at an important Mughal city, Agra on the banks of the Jamuna river. Agra also has an awesome fortress, the tombs of Emperor Akbar, his consort, Jodha Bai and Vizier I’timad-ud-daulah of Emperor Jahangir. The chief architect of the Taj was Ustad Ahmed Lahori. The design is a synthesis though the Persian element is predominant.

Image result for taj mahal decorations

Taj Mahal, image, 21st century.

 The Taj Mahal

Aye, build it on these banks,” the monarch said,
“That when the autumn winds have swept the sea,
They may come hither with their falling rains,
A voice of mighty weeping o’er her grave.”

They brought the purest marble that the earth
E’er treasured from the sun, and ivory
Was never yet more delicately carved :
Then cupolas were raised, and minarets,
And flights of lofty steps, and one vast dome
Rose till it met the clouds : richly inlaid
With red and black, this palace of the dead
Exhausted wealth and skill. Around its walls
The cypresses like funeral columns stood,
And lamps perpetual burnt beside the tomb.
And yet the emperor felt it was in vain,
A desolate magnificence that mocked
The lost one, and the loved, which it enshrined.

……………..Letitia Elizabeth Landon

   The Taj Mahal is situated a mile distant from the Agra Fort at a bend of the river Jamuna. The Taj was built on a large square area out of Raja Jai Singh’s garden. The Taj is considered a place of pilgrimage because Mumtaz Mahal had died during childbirth, ie. it is both a rauza and urs, hence it was designed keeping in mind the needs of both. there is designed place for pilgrims to stay, poor to receive food and gift of clothes etc. The Taj has a forecourt and gardens. The charbagh, mosque and tomb were built in the larger portion, ending in an open platform and raised terrace with the river in view. The mausoleum was placed on this terrace. The gateway at the southern end was the public entrance. The gateway at the northern wall of the forecourt is a three storeyed gateway.

Image result for taj mahal decorations

          Floral arabesques on spandrels, Taj Mahal, image, 21st century.

     The Taj unfolds as one walks through the monument. The outer gateway opens to a  large quadrangle surrounded by arcaded rooms and adorned by four gateways This monument took 22 years to build. A broad pavement leads to a gateway made of red stone and inscribed with verses from the Holy Quran. As one moves on, one can see  beauty and embellishement. There are the jaalis, pietra dura works as beautiful arabesques. Some views here are testimony to some splendid floral designs at the Taj.

Image result for taj mahal decorations

         Floral arabesques on spandrels,Taj Mahal, image, 21st century.

Image result for taj mahal decorations

        Floral arabesque in border and plant motifs on a dado, Taj Mahal, image, 21st  century.

Image result for iris flower illustrationIris flower, illustration.Image result for iris flower illustration
 The flowers which are depicted in the precincts of the Taj including the interiors and exteriors show floral compositions. Some of them resemble the iris flower if one looks closely or probably inspired by this flower ! Some patterns resemble the fuschia too.
Related image        Fuschia flower, illustration.

 File:Taj Mahal Agra DSC 0459.jpg

Chevrons and vegetal motifs, Taj Mahal, image, 21st century.

Image result for taj mahal decorations

          Petals, inverted, Taj Mahal, image, 21st century.

Image result for taj mahal decorations

           Vegetal and floral arabesques,Taj Mahal, image, 21st century.

File:Taj Mahal, Agra views from around (55).JPG

        Taj Mahal, image, 21st century.

Image result for taj mahal decorations

         Vegetal scroll, Taj Mahal, image, 21st century.

Image result for taj mahal decorations

         Taj Mahal, image, 21st century.

Image result for taj mahal decorations

         Floral scroll, Taj Mahal, image, 21st century.

Image result for taj mahal decorations

         Ornamental scrolls, vegetal design, Taj Mahal, image, 21st century.

File:Art of enterance of TAJ MAHAL.JPG

         Detail, Taj Mahal, image, 21st century.

File:Taj Mahal, Agra, India...JPG

         Detail, Taj Mahal, image, 21st century.

 

 

References:

  1. https://www.poetry.net/
  2. Wikipedia.org
  3. Images are from Wikimedia Commons

 

 

Posted by –

Soma Ghosh

©author