Category Archives: Indian miniature paintings

Paintings of the Devi : power and glory

Durga is an important deity from the Hindu pantheon. She is revered as a destroyer of evil. She is  a Goddess or a devi. The word devi in Sanskrit means divine or heavenly and a shining presence. The concept of devi first appeared in the Vedas in 200 B.C. but gained focus in Puranic literature with texts like the Devi Mahatmya. Goddess Durga reigns supreme and is the divine feminine as Devi in Hinduism and a divine mother as Mata.

Image result for Durga in miniature paintings

Durga slaying the demon, Nurpur painting, Himachal Pradesh, early 18th century.

The legend of Durga appears as an avatar of Parvati, who is angry, ferocious and has eight to ten arms, holding weapons and skulls, riding a lion or tiger. She is a warrior goddess  who kills Mahisasura whom the male Gods were unable to control. Durga is a unified form of all Gods. She is one who saves a devotee from durgati or misfortune. Her mythology is described in the Devi Mahatmya, a part of the Markandeya Purana from the 4th to 6th century.

The nine manifestations of Durga or Navadurga are worshipped during Navaratri in the month of Ashwin of the Hindu calendar; Shailaputri, Brahmacharini, Chandraghanta,Skandamata,Katyayani,Kaalratri,Mahagauri and Siddhidaatri. Durga is associated with two mountain ranges, the Himalayas in the north and the VIndhyas in central India. She is Paravati in the Himalayas; daughter of the mountains. Durga images have been found in Afghanistan(ancient Gandhara) and also in Tibet.

File:Durga in an episode from the Mahesha Mardini (6125116054).jpg

Scene from the Devimahatmyam, painting, 17th century.

The Shiva Purana says Lord Shiva invoked Durga from his left half to create and together both created Shivaloka. As per the Devi Mahatmya ,Mahisasura, son of demon Rambha unleashed terror on earth and defeated the Gods. The Gods then approached Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. Together they created a woman on whom they bestowed weapons and she was Durga. Durga as Mahisasuramardini is one of the manifestations of the Divine mother whose primary aim is to combat demons who threaten the cosmos. She has many arms and each has a different weapon. She rides on a lion and defeats the buffalo demon Mahisasura who has been given a boon that no-one can defeat  him except a woman. The demon’s entire army was challenged by Durga. Mahisasura attacked Durga as a buffalo-demon whom Durga kills with a trisula (trident) after a fierce battle.

File:Brooklyn Museum - Durga Killing the Buffalo Demon.jpg

Durga after victory over Mahisasura, the demon, opaque watercolor embellished with applied gold and lacquer strips, 19th century. Brooklyn Museum, U.S.A

File:Ten-armed Devi annihilating demons - Unknown, Kashmir School - Google Cultural Institute.jpg

Durga slaying demons, Kashmir, early 19th century.

File:Kalighat pictures Indian gods f.25.jpg

Durga slaying the demon, Kalighat painting, 19th century.

 

 ”Sarva mangala mangalye shive sarvaartha saadhike Sharanye trayambake Gauri Narayani namosthute ”

”To auspiciousness of all auspiciousness Shiva -to the Good sarvarrtha saadhike – to the accomplisher of all objectives sharanye – to the Source of Refuge tryambake – to the mother of the three worlds. Gauri – to the Goddess who is Rays of Light Naaraayani – Exposer of consciousness Namostute- We bow to you again and again. We worship you”.

Posted by:

 

Soma Ghosh

©author

 

References and images :

  • Mahisasuramardini by Sanjaya Kumar Mahapatra, Agam Kala Prakashan, 2014.
  • Goddess Durga : the power and the glory, Marg Publications, Mumbai,2009.
  • wikipedia.org
  • speakingtree.in
  • Images are from Wikimedia Commons

 

 

 

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The Barahmasa : depictions in Indian miniature paintings

         The twelve months or Barahmasa correspond to the length of a year which is a span of time. During these months various seasons happen in nature. Human activities change and so does the scenery with its various elements, the sky, birds, water bodies, animals and vegetation. The various months are Chaitra (March-April). starting in the spring season.  The following months are Vaishakha(April-May), Jyestha (May-June, Asadha (June-July), Sravana(July-August), Bhadon (August-September), Ashvin (September-October), Kartikka (October-November), Margasirsa (November-December), Pausa(December-January), Magha ( January-February) and Phalguna (February-March).

    The folio from a Hindu calendar, Vikram Samvat is seen below. The left column shows the ten avatars of Vishnu, the center-right column shows the twelve signs of the Hindu zodiac. Top middle panel shows Ganesha with two consorts. The second panel shows Krishna with two consorts. The seasons are well recognized and has been depicted in all forms in India’s art and literature and it’s overall cultural landscape. Poetry, painting and sculpture have awesome portrayals and descriptions of the seasons. Seasons in India are part of her ethos and life. Festivals are also celebrated in connections with seasons.  The Barahmasa is a genre of poetry, a concept to which there have been many contributions. Indian paintings have been closely associated with literature. Many important literary works right from ancient times have been depicted  in art and sculpture. The Jataka tales have been depicted in many Buddhist sites of India.

  .     

Hindu calendar/almanac corresponding to Western years 1871-1872, Rajasthan. 

See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

              Coming to the subject at hand, this theme has been depicted mostly from late medieval period.  An Indian treatise Chitrasutra composed by Vishnudhrmaottara, sometime during the interval of the Kushana and Gupta times has a set of guidelines on how the seasons are to be depicted in art. Painters have followed the guidelines in ancient and medieval India.

   The Barahmasa was popular in Hindi literature during 13th to 16th centuries and also was a part of Sufi poetry. However, Barahmasa in miniature paintings were mostly done or executed in the 17th and 18th centuries.  The paintings had writings in Devanagari on top or behind the painting. Many royal courts had their own painters and ateliers. This theme has not found much favour with Mughal miniatures and Deccani painting though nature by itself has been a subject of composition in these schools. Many animal and bird portraitures have been made in the Mughal paintings; the Deccani schools depict clouds, ponds and lotuses.

        The Rajasthani painting evolved in the courts of Rajputana. They were done in the mniature format. and also on walls of havelis(mansions), palaces and inner chambers of forts. The pigmetns were derived from minerals,plants, conches and precious stones too ! Gold and silver were used at places. The paintings depicted avrious themes from the social viewpoint, also stories form the epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata. Nature was depicted too’; these paintings were representative of a rulers legacy. The Rajasthani school has many sub-schools. like Jaipur,Bikaner, Bundi, Kota, Mewar. Alwar and Jodhpur. The style of painting has been influenced by Persian, European, Mughal and Chinese art of painting.The paintings are rich, mostly due to the arid desert landscape, dry hills and less vegetation.

     The Barahmasa theme has been depicted in Chamba, Garhwal, Guler, Kangra, Mandi and Nurpur schools from among the Pahari school. The Pahari schools developed in the hilly regions of North India during 17th to 19th century. From Jammu to Almora and Garhwal,Himachal Pradesh. the range is wide,varied and very interesting. Basohli school is from Jammu which is known for its bold colours. Kangra is famous for its Radha-Krishna depictions and its lyrical quality.; being greatly inspired by Jayadeva’s Geeta-govinda. Central India has the Malwa, Datia and Bundelkhand schools.

     The Chitrasutra as already mentioned has given guidelines for the seasons and they seem to be followed by artists across India. Summer is indicated by the sun in the sky, spring with its seasonal trees in bloom, humming bees,cuckoo depictions and men and women going around happily ! Further, summer depicts fatigue experienced by men,animals, dry pools,birds hiding in trees,lions and  tigers resting in their mountainous hideouts. The rainy season has its dark, laden clouds and streaks of lightning in the sky. Autumn has trees full of fruits,corn ripe in the fields, pools full of swans and lotuses. The winter has its dew and fog, the earth is a bit bare and misty. Crows and elephants are joyous.  There is snowfall in some places.

    Depicted below are some Barahmasa paintings from different schools. The month of Chaitra is depicted with the seasonal trees in bloom and men and women joyous and in conversation. Birds and sarus cranes are seen in the background and where the lotuses are abounding in the pool nearby.

1 The month of Chaitra. Barahmasa series. March-April. 1675-1700 (circa) Bundi. British Museum.jpg

Chaitra (March-April), Barahmasa, Bundi, 1675-1700 A.D, British Museum,U.K.

By Unknown – British Museum, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=20762741

       The month of Jyeshtha is hot and humid, people are seen using hand fans reclining under shades and birds are hiding in the trees. The sun is scorching the earth and there is bright light around. Tree ahve shed their leaves due to the heat. The animals are resting in shade or retreating to the forest.

2 Jestha (may-june). Barahmasa series. Jaipur, ca. 1800, British Museum.jpg

Jyestha (May-June). Barahmasa, Jaipur, 1800s, British Museum,U.K.

By Unknown – British Museum, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=20762750

 Jyestha (May-June), Folio from a Barahmasa,  Uniara, Rajasthan, 1775, LACMA- public domain image.

      The Asadha month is the pre-monsoon month and clouds are seen to start arriving in the sky with sporadic rain. In Shravan the sky gets laden with rain bearing clouds and the opens with lightning and thunder ! Peacocks are happiest during this time and dance to full glory with their splendorous tail spread out. Nature all around is green and verdant. Pangs of separation are felt more strongly in this season. Forlorn heroines are eager to meet their beloved !

 Ashadha (June-July), Folio from a Barahmasa, Kota, 1700-1725.

LACMA- public domain image.

File:4 Sravana (july-august). Barahmasa series. Jaipur, ca. 1800, British Museum.jpg

Sravana (July-August), Barahmasa, Jaipur, 1800, British  Museum,U.K.

See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Bhadon (August-September), Folio from a Barahmasa ,LACMA ,U.S.A

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50398299@N08/16260026998/ image by Ashley Van Haeften

          The painting below shows a forlorn heroine trying to go out to meet her beloved and her sakhi or friend refraining her as the sky is full of menacing clouds during the month of Bhadon.

'Virahini' (Lovesick Heroine), India, c. 1740, Honolulu Museum of Art, 10689.1.JPG

Virahini (lovesick heroine), Bhadon (August-September)1740, Barahmasa,  Honolulu Museum of Art,U.S.A.

By Unknown – Own work, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=29363548

Bhadon (August-September), Barahmasa, Malwa, 1640-1650, LACMA- public domain image.
Bhadon (August-September). Barahmasa, Jaipur, 1800, British Museum,U.K.
See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

6 Asoja (september-october). Barahmasa series. Jaipur, ca. 1800, British Museum.jpg

 Ashvin or Asoja, (September-October). Barahmasa, Jaipur, 1800, British Museum,U.K.
 See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
 7 Kartikka (october-november). Barahmasa series. Jaipur, ca. 1800, British Museum.jpg
  Kartikka,(October-November). Barahmasa, Jaipur, 1800, British Museum,U.K.
 See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
8 Margasira (november-december) Barahmasa series..jpg
Margasirsa or Agrahayana,(November-December) Barahmasa series,1800, Rajasthan. British Museum, London,U.K.
See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
         The month of Pausa is depicted with people warming their hands over fire and  sleeping under blankets to face the biting cold. Shawls are worn around the head and shoulders. People seem to be suffering from fever and are making visits to the vaidya or doctor for treatment.
Pausa, (December-January). Barahmasa, Jaipur, 1800, British Museum,U.K.
See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.
References :
  • Barahmasa/Dwivedi,V.P, Delhi : Agam Kala Prakashan,1980.
  • wikipedia.org
Posted by

Soma Ghosh

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Nayikas in art : some glimpses from miniatures

 

          The Nayika occupies a very important place in Indian art and literature. She is seen in different moods. A translation of the word nayika is heroine. The depictions in art have captured her description in different hues and settings. The Kangra nayika is fluid in movement surrounded by nature. The elements of nature are captured in strong colours. The nayika could also be forlorn, sitting in a forest with the background in slightly softer shades. There is a  nayika in every woman. Bharata first captured the various nayikas , eight in number or the ashta nayika in his Natyashastra. Human feelings of eagerness, anger,separation, dejection etc. are all expressed through these paintings. The Nayika goes through different moods in her lifetime as per the situation prevailing then. Various poets and authors have described the feelings through their works in literature. Kalidasa has captured the anguish of separation of his nayika Shakuntala in his work Abhijnanashakuntalam in Sanskrit.  

     A nayika”s beauty is very much a part of the shringara rasa which includes the amorous , the erotic, the decorative, song and dance. The heroine forms the  central character in many works of Indian literature. Through the work one can experience her different moods and emotions, her challenges, her failures and her victories. The description of her beauty and character also make interesting reading and understanding of the social environment of a given era. A nayika brings out the best in a poet or dramatist, by lending her presence by illusory, historical or real presence.

Proshita-patika nayika, painting, early 19th century.

By Unknown – http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/labs/splitsecond/painting.php?id=15, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=17106519

       Bharatmuni composed the Sanskrit treatise Natyashastra ( between 1st century BC and 3rd century AD, with others adding to the main work) on dance and the performing arts,  in which he has classified eight types of nayikas  called ashtanayikas. This theme has been well used in painting, sculpture, dance  and drama. Bharatamuni has focussed on the nayikas as she can appear in a given drama again depending on the plot. He has envisaged women as the root cause of happiness.

 

Swadhinabhartruka nayika, Kalighat painting, 19th/20th century.

By The original uploader was ENVI1 at English Wikipedia – Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons by Redtigerxyz using CommonsHelper., Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=11806481

  The Natyasastra  describes eight types of nayikas. Though the term can encompass many types of nayikas in many facets and contexts, the various states of the nayika in love are depicted in drama. Bharatmuni has described many kinds of nayikas depending on other factors like social status, nature and also on how she is treated by the king as being part of the royal harem during ancient times. The different nayikas are the    Vasakashajja,Virohotkanthita,Svadhina-bhartruka,Kalahanatarita,Khandita, Vipralabdha, Proshitabhartruka and Abhisarika.

    Vasakashajja means one who is dressed up for union. She  is depicted below in a painting readying her shajja or bed with flowers. She is full of longing and is in a state of waiting for her lover.

Vaskashajja nayika, painting,late 17th century.

By Unknown – Online Collection of Brooklyn Museum; Photo: Brooklyn Museum, X623.2_IMLS_SL2.jpg, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10966883

      One who is distressed by separation is virohikanthita or  Utka,  a nayika who is pining for her lover who has failed to meet her or come home due to preoccupation. She is utterly disappointed.

File:Utka Nayika. A lady awaits her lover in the forest. 1775-1780. Kangra, British Museum, London.jpg

Utka nayika, painting.Kangra,late 18th century.

By Anonymous (British Museum) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

    A nayika is a svadhinabhatruka if she is one who is having her husband in subjugation. She controls her husband who is subjugated because of her intense love for him. He listens to her, applies mahawar on her feet, vermillion on her forehead. Radha has been portrayed as such in Geeta Govinda. Such a nayika  is  happy, proud and feels fortunate.

     Kalahanatarita is a nayika who is separated or angry with her lover due to quarrel. Sometimes she is separated due to her arrogance. In this state her lover is usually shown pleading with her, or leaving her house dejected. She might also be shown refusing his advances. She may also be depicted refusing a wine-cup that he is offering to her. The nayika is however repentant without him.

   Khandita is a nayika who is enraged with her lover because he has not come to her and probably spent his time with another woman and she is angry with him. In this state she is depicted as offended and rebuking her lover.

Vipralabhda is a nayika  who is a deceived heroine is a vipralabdha, one who has waited for her lover, she is usually depicted throwing away her jewellery and adornments. She is disappointed and her heart is full of discontent.

    Proshita-bhartruka is a nayika  who has a travelling husband and who does not come back on the scheduled day. She is depicted seated alone or surrounded by her maids and refusing to be consoled. She does not bother to dress up or apply any make-up or comb her hair.

    Abhisarika is the nayika who moves, setting aside her modesty to meet her lover secretly. She is shown facing dangers on her way like snakes and animals in the forest, thunder-storms etc. She is shown depicted as starting from the door of her house, in a hurry to reach her destination. She is drunk with the emotion that she feels and just wants to meet her lover who is waiting for her.

Abhisarika nayika,painting, Garhwal, 18th century.

By Mola Ram (MFA [1]) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

File:Vipralabdha Nayika. Jaipur, ca. 1800, British Museum, London.jpg

Vipralabdha nayika.,painting, Jaipur, 1800, British Museum, London.

By Anonymous (British Museum) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

 

 

References :

  • Nayika bheda in Kathak/Jyotishi, Chetana,Delhi : Agam Kala Prakashan,2009.
  • shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in

 

 

Posted by:

 

Soma Ghosh

 

© author

 

Hyderabad school of painting : depictions of Deccan

 

       The Hyderabad school of Deccani painting had started evolving in early 18th century with the foundation of the Asaf Jahi dynasty. They were the Nizams of Hyderabad; seven rulers have governed the region. Mir Qamaruddin Khan, Nizam-ul-mulk a Viceroy or subedar of the Deccan under the Mughals declared independence in 1724 A. D. He being a patron of the arts along with the rich influence of the Golconda school and Mughal styles; helped in creating many works of art under the Hyderabad-Deccani genre in Aurangabad and Hyderabad.

       The school was influenced by other styles but  had its own charcteristics.  They can be seen in its treatment of subjects,costumes, landscape, flora, fauna and the general colouring have Deccani influence. Scenes from gardens and courtyards have been captured other than the main themes which included portraits of the rulers and their families,noblemen, women on terraces, saints and Raga-raginis.

After the death of the first Nizam and subsequent rulers like his son Nasir Jung and Muzaffar Jung, grandson and another son Salabat Jung, Mir Nizam Ali Khan became ruler as Asaf Jah II in 1762. He too was a patron of the arts and during his reign poets, musicians and artists came to his court. His biography Tuzuki-Asafi was written and illustrated by Tajalli Ali Shah in 1793. His court painter was Rai Venkatachalam. Raja Chandulal also patronised the arts and many works were made for Raja Nanak Ram, Rai Rayan and other Hindu noblemen. The political condition during the 18th century was not very stable and this affected the character of the paintings. However lot of portraits were made between the fall of Golconda in 1687 and the beginning of the Asaf Jahi rule in 1724, when the area was under the Mughal governors.

 

    Paintings of the Hyderabad school depict flowers and trees like the palm tree, coconut,plumeria, champa etc. Flowering plants, terraces and parapets made of marble with jaali (trellis) work, doors in brown are seen. Some paintings depict peacocks, ducks and fishes. The sky is blue or blue-green with touches of indigo  to depict clouds. Carpets and rugs are seen in some works. The human figures are tall and have sharp features. Women are shown wearing stringed pearl necklaces. 

     Sikandar Jah succeeded Nizam Ali Khan as Asaf Jah III(1803-1829) and paintings were still being made. Under Asaf Jah IV and Asaf Jah V paintings depicting gardens and harem scenes were made. By the mid-nineteeth century the demand for these paintings reduced and the paintings went into history but give us a glimpse into the life of that time.File:Woman and Attendants with a Bird.jpg

Woman with  her attendant, Hyderabad, late 18th century.

By Deccan School [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

 

 

File:Ladies on a Terrace.jpg

.Women on a terrace,18th century, Hyderabad.

See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.

 

References :

  • Mittal, Jagdish/Deccani Kalams/Bombay : Marg Publications, Vol XVI,No : 2, 1963.

  • Zebrowski, Mark/Deccani painting, New Delhi : Roli Books,1983.





Posted by :


Soma Ghosh

© author

 

Prithvi in art : some images of Goddess Earth

            Prithvi or Goddess Earth is revered in Hinduism and some branches of Buddhism. She is Mother Earth. She is also associated with the cow. Prithu, a form of Vishnu milked her as a cow. In the Rigveda she is addressed along with the sky or dyaus pita and she is prithvi mata. She is a national personification in Indonesia, where she is known as Ibu Pertiwi. Pṛithvi Sukta or Bhumi sukta is a  hymn in  the Atharvaveda dedicated to Prithvi. As per Buddhism Prtihvi protects and is witness to Gautama Buddha’s enlightenment. The Buddha is seen in bhumisparsa mudra or earth touching gesture at many places.

     The sculpture below is in high relief and is carved in a shallow niche at Udaigiri in Madhya Pradesh. The relief depicts Varaha, the boar incarnation of Vishnu, rescuing the Earth Goddess ,Bhu devi or Prithvi from the engulfing ocean. Varaha lifts Bhu Devi on his massive shoulder, his foot subduing a naga who folds his hands in obeisance,while gods and sages surround Varaha in recognition of the miracle. A circular lotus flower appears above the god’s head.

File:WLA lacma Varaha the Boar Avatar of Vishnu Mathura.jpg

Varaha with Bhu devi,sculpture, red sandstone,3rd century,Mathura,LACMA,USA.

By Wikipedia Loves Art participant “ARTiFACTS” [CC BY-SA 2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons

 

File:Udayagiri 8-11.jpg

 

Varaha lifting Bhu devi or Prtihvi,5th century, Udayagiri Caves, Madhya Pradesh.

By Michael Gunther (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons

            The sculpture below too depicts the Varaha, incarnation of Vishnu. Goddess Prithvi is also depicted; being lifted by Varaha in this sculpture.  The sculpture is located at inner walls of the sanctum area of the Lakshmana temple.

Image result for prithvi goddess earth

Varaha with Prithvi, Lakshmana temple,12th century,Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh.

By Rajenver (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons

File:Prithu - Crop.jpg

Pruthu chasing the goddess Earth or Bhu ,illustration, Bhagavata-purana,Guler,18th century.

By Attributed to: Manaku, Indian, ([1]) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

File:Varaha avtar, killing a demon to protect Bhu, c1740.jpg

Varaha killing demon Hiranyaksha and lifting Bhu devi or the Earth above the ocean,Chamba,18th century.
By Anonymous (British Museum [1]) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

 

 

References :

  • wikipedia.org
  • Epics, myths and legends of India/Thomas, P, Bombay : D.B. Taraporevala and Sons.

 

Posted by

Soma Ghosh

© author

Battle-scenes in art : vivid images

          Battles have been a part of the history of mankind. Many battles have taken place since ancient times. Some battles are well-remembered and illustrated in art through miniature and oil paintings. The main Hindu epics of India, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata have two major battles in it. The Ramayana has the confrontation between Lord Rama with his vanara (monkey)army along with his brother Lakshmana against the demon King, Ravana. Ravana has abducted Lord Rama’s wife Sita during their exile in the forest and he has to liberate her from captivity in Lanka.

Battle-scene at Lanka, Ramayana,17th century.

By Sahibdin – British Library, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4179627

File:Battle Scene in a City, Folio from a Ramayana (Adventures of Rama) LACMA M.85.228.jpg

Battle-scene in a city, illustration,Ramayana, probably Varnanasi,early 17th century,LACMA,USA.

See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

        The Kurukshetra war is also called the Mahabharata war fought mainly between the Pandavas and Kauravas, cousin groups, for the throne of Hastinapur in the Kuru kingdom. It occurred at Kurukshetra in modern Haryana and the battle lasted for eighteen days. It has been roughly dated to 3100 B.C.

File:A battle scence from Mahabharata.jpg

Battle-scene, Mahabharata,Kangra painting,1800.

See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Kurukshetra war,9th day,painting,21st century.

By RajeshUnuppally (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons

Image result for battle scenes from india in paintings

Battlescene,Bhagavata purana,illustration,17th century.

See page for author [No restrictions or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

       The first battle of Panipat was very decisive battle in the history of India. It was fought in 1526 between the forces of Babur and the Lodi empire. It ushered in the Mughal era in India. This battle used gunpowder and fire-arms. The guns used by Babur helped him win against Ibrahim Lodi, the booming cannons scaring away Lodi’s elephants who trampled its own soldiers.

First Battle of Panipat,illustration from Baburnama,16th century.

By Painters of Babur (Baburnama) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

File:1565-Battle Scene with Boats on the Ganges-Akbarnama.jpg

Battle-scene with boats, from Akbarnama, Mughal painting, 16th century.

By Tulsi (the elder) (artist), Jagjivan (artist) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

The fierce battle of Talikota in 1565 was fought between one of the largest South Indian empires, the Vijayanagara empire and the powerful Deccan Sultanates. Vijayanagara lost at this battle in present North Karnataka close to Bijapur.

Battle of Talikota, 16th century.

By Aftabi – Template:Ta’rif-i Husain Shahi [1][2], CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=41665109

       The seige of Seringapatnam or Srirangapatnam in 1799 also called the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War will be remembered in history for ever. It was a confrontation between the British East India Company and the Kingdom of Mysore. The British allied with the Nizam of Hyderabad and stormed the fort of Seringapatnam. Tipu Sulan  Mysore’s de-facto ruler was killed in the action. After the decisive battle the British restored the Wodeyar dynasty to the throne while keeping indirect control over Mysore

File:A Qajar Persian copy of a British painting of the assault.jpg

Battle at Seringapatnam,Qajar painting,Persia,1836/7.

See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

File:Kangra painting of a battle scene presented to the US by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.jpg

Battlescene, Kangra painting,19th century.

By White House [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

    The battle of Plassey (Palashi) in 1757 was another decisive battle in India’s history.Fought between the British East India Company, it consolidated Brtish position in Bengal which later covered most of India. The battle took place on the banks of the Bhagirathi river, 150 km form Kolkata(previously Calcutta) between Siraj-ud-daowlah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal and the British East India Company.

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After Battle of Plassey,painting.

By Francis Hayman – http://www.sterlingtimes.org/memorable_images56.htm (http://www.sterlingtimes.org/clive_of_india.jpg)NPG link: http://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait/mw01347/Robert-Clive-and-Mir-Jafar-after-the-Battle-of-Plassey-1757Current image source [1], Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=565912

References :

  • An advanced history of India/Majumdar R.C,Roychoudhuri,H.C, Datta,Kalinkar,London : Macmillan,1948.
  • wikipedia.org

 

 

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Soma Ghosh

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