Category Archives: History of Hyderabad

Poetry in architecture: a walk through the Qutub Shahi necropolis at Hyderabad

 

           Tucked away in Ibrahimbagh in the historic city of Hyderabad in India, which was founded in 1591 by the fifth Sultan of the Qutub Shahi rulers of the Deccan Sultanate of Golconda; who ruled when Sultan Quli declared independence from the powerful Bahmani kingdom in early 16th century, is their necropolis in a beautiful garden setting. The Sultans ruled both from Golconda and Hyderabad at different points of time.The Qutub Shahis are remembered for bringing in new traditions along with immigrants from Persia, the founder Sultan Quli being from there who migrated to the Indian subcontinent. The Qutub Shahis  mingled their culture with local sensibilities to usher in a ‘composite’ culture which paved the way for new ways of dress and etiquette, language, intoduction of beautiful calligraphy, art and architecture. A new idiom thewhich, Golconda school of miniature painting evolved during their reign who were great patrons of music and literature. The Sultans themselves composed poetry which is still cherished. They patronised the languages Persian and Telugu along with Dakhni, proto-Urdu. Many works of literture were produced.  The dynasty ruled upto 1686 which ended with the siege by Aurangzeb in 1687. After an interim Mughal rule the Asaf Jahis ruled and developed the area which became part of the Indian Republic in 1956. The city of Hyderabad, now in Telangana State of India, has seen phases of growth  under various rulers to become a major metropolis in south of India with expansion of the newer city of Hyderabad, the Secunderabad Cantonment, the last addition being Cyberabad. This write-up focusses on the amazing tomb complex at Ibrahimbagh in Hyderabad which is some distance from the Golconda Fort. Qutub Shahi architectural splendour is very prominent here with most features of Islamic architecture with components like arches, domes and minarets. The local influence can be seen in the liberal use of lotus-petal bases around the domes and minarets.20180929_122813-1

View of Golconda Fort on the way to the tombs |D. Vinod

             The tombs of the Sultans along with other important people from the family and associates are at a royal necropolis or tomb complex at Ibrahimbagh near the Golconda Fort.  The place was also called Bagh Safa. The tombs were built over time by various kings. Surrounding the tombs are gardens; beautiful gardens with shrubs and trees, a bagh setting amidst fountains and the timeless interplay of light and shade. Nature seems to be at its best with flowers, birds, bees, butterlfies and squirrels, abundant foliage, under the bluest skies.

Skyview, image | Dinesh Singh

 Mentionable here are the eight sultans of  the Qutub Shahi dynasty; Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk (1512–1543), Jamsheed Quli Qutb Shah (1543–1550), Subhan Quli Qutb Shah (1550),Ibrahim Quli    Qutb Shah (1550–1580),Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah (1580–1612), Sultan Muhammad Qutb Shah (1612–1626),Abdullah Qutb Shah (1626–1672) and Abul Hasan Qutb Shah (1672–1686). The last Sultan is not buried here as he was sent to Daulatabad after the Mughal siege by Aurangzeb and his forces in 1687.

Cistern at the bagh, image|Dinesh Singh

        The architecture seen here is a beautiful blend of Persian, Indian and Pashtun influences. The tombs are mostly on a raised platform having domes and surrounded by arches. The tombs were much venerated during the Qutub Shahi times. The tombs of the Sultans had golden spires over them. People would read from the Holy Quran which used to be kept on pedestals.  During the Qutub Shahi rule, there used to be Persian carpets on the floors inside the tombs with the perfume of incense wafting around.  After the reign changed, the tombs were not much in focus. In the beginning of 19th century, Sir Salar Jung ordered for their restoration. He was an important prime-minister of Hyderabad-Deccan during the Asaf Jahi rule (1724-1948). The Aga Khan Foundation is restoring the tombs at present in the 21st century. There are displays which show the course of work that is happening here at the bagh.

      One gets to see all the sturctures in the tomb complex along with the gardens and fountains, the well called Badi bowli, a neatly designed stepwell. The fine stucco on the structures leaves one amazed and the dainty designs on the minarets are very pleasing to the eye. The tomb of the founder of the dynasty Sultan Quli Qutub-ul-mulk is some distance away to the south west of the tomb of Sultan Mohammad Quli Qutub Shah. A fairly simple tomb structure built on a platform with an octagonal interior with a dome crowning the top. Sultan Quli’s tomb has the inscription Bade Malik or Big Master as he was addressed by that name. The tomb has two graves with another smaller one. Outside there are 21 graves on the plinth, maybe of people close to him. The tomb of Subhan Quli on the same plinth has a dome which being fluted looks very beautiful. Some distance away to the west of Sultan Quli’s tomb is his son Jamsheed Quli’s tomb, an octagonal structure which looks double storeyed with arches and projecting balconies. The balconies have rich ornamental balustrades.. The tomb of Mohammad Amin who died in 1596; who was the sixth son of Sultan Ibrahim Qutub Shah and father of Sultan Mohammad Qutub Shah at a young age of 25, is towards the west of the tomb complex. The tomb has two graves inside.

Tomb of Sultan Quli, founder of the dynasty|D.Vinod

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Fountain, tomb complex, Ibrahimbagh, Hyderabad|Dinesh Singh

     The tomb of Sultan Ibrahim Qutub Shah is some distance away to the south west of Sultan Quli’s mausoleum.The tomb has two graves in the main chamber and another sixteen on the terrace most probably of his children. Sultan Mohammad Qutub Shah’s mausoleum has a circular dome and the central chamber is surrrounded by an arcaded gallery with seven exits or openings. The upper storey has five recesses. 

The tomb of  Sultan Subhan Ali, fondly called Chhote Malik or Little Master lies near his father Jamsheed Quli’s tomb. The other tombs are of the physicians or hakims of the Sultan Abdullah Qutub Shah, Nizamuddin Ahmed Jeelani and Abdul Jabbar Jeelani, tomb of Neknaam Khan who served in Sultan Abdullah’s army, tomb of Fatima Sultan sister of Mohammad Qutub Shah and Kulsoom , his grand-daughter. Also the tombs of courtesans Taramati and Pemamati. The tomb complex was once called Lagar-e-faiz-athar  where songs, dances and drama were regularly staged.

There are also other tombs in the complex of members of the dynasty of the Qutub Shahis which have different architectural features from the main tombs but are very pleasing to the eye with ornate designs.

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Tomb of Hayat Bakshi Begum, tomb complex, Ibrahimbagh, Hyderabad|Dinesh Singh

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Tile decoration, Hayat Bakshi Begum masjid, tomb complex, Ibrahim bagh, Hyderabad|Dinesh Singh

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Tomb of Sultan Jamsheed Quli, tomb complex, Ibrahimbagh, Hyderabad|D. Vinod

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Tomb of Sultan Ibrahim Qutub Shah, Ibrahimbagh, Hyderabad|Soma Ghosh

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Blue tile work remains, Tomb of Sultan Ibrahim Qutub Shah, Ibrahimbagh, Hyderabad|Asif Ali Khan

        The tomb of Sultan Mohammad Quli Qutub Shah who died in 1612 is a striking structure with a double terrace. He was the fifth Sultan and is well rembered for constructing the Charminar at Hyderabad with the Char Kaman and founding the city of Hyderabad. The Sultan’s grave is in a crypt covered with black stone and is lower than the ground. The arcades around are unique and are very cool inside in contrast to the bright sunlight during daytime outside the tomb. The minarets at the corners have exquisite designs.

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Tomb of Sultan Mohammad Quli Qutub Shah, tomb complex, Ibrahimbagh, Hyderabad|D.Vinod

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          Archways, tomb of Sultan Mohammad Quli Qutub Shah, tomb complex,       Ibrahimbagh, Hyderabad|Soma Ghosh

The tomb of the seventh ruler, Sultan Abdullah Qutub Shah appears first to the vistor. The sacrophagus is in black basalt. There are still some traces of blue and green enamel on the minarets. The tomb overall is very impressive with its seven arches built in perfect alignment in its corridors giving a feel of infinity. After this on the left one gets to see the incomplete tomb but actually has the grave of Sultan Abdullah’s eldest son-in-law Mirza Nizamuddin Ahmed.

          Some way from the entrance to the north-west one can locate the impressive tomb of Hayat Bakshi Begum or Ma saheba, who is the daughter of the fifth ruler, Sultan Mohammad Quli Qutub Shah and wife of the 4th ruler, Sultan Mohammad Qutub Shah. Her son was Sultan Abdullah Qutub Shah. She played an important role and was a strong presence in Deccan history of the time. She was fondly called Ma-saheba. Her tomb has seven arches on each side with beautiful minarets at the corners, her sacrophagus in black basalt with verses. Her tomb is ornate and its parapet displays a frieze of flowers. 

     The tomb of Mohammad Qutub Shah is near the tomb of Hayat Baksh Begum to the south. He died in 1626. The graves of his other six children are also in this tomb. The complex has the tombs of Taramati and Pemamati who were sisters and royal dancers and concubines. The mortuary bath is also at the complex where the bodies of the royals would be given a bath before burial; there were cisterns for both hot and cold perfumed water.

Tomb of  Sultan Abdullah Qutub Shah, tomb complex, Ibrahimbagh, Hyderabad| Dinesh Singh

The Hayat Bakshi Begum’s mosque attached to her tomb at the north side of her tomb is an important structure of the complex. It has a prayer hall, a vaulted roof with sunken domes, a facade with five arches and finely designed minarets with pots at the ends on lotus petals. The dome at the centre has beautiful designs; the mihrab has an inscription containing Quranic verses in superb calligraphy around it on black stone. This masjid was built in 1667.

The tomb of the founder of the dynasty Sultan Quli Qutub-ul-mulk is some distance away to the south west of the tomb of Sultan Mohammad Quli Qutub Shah. A fairly simple tomb structure built on a platform with an octagonal interior with a dome crowning the top. The tomb has two graves with another smaller one. Outside there are 21 graves on the plinth, maybe of people close to him. The tomb of Subhan Quli on the same plinth has a dome which being fluted looks very beautiful. Some distance away to the west of Sultan Quli’s tomb is his son Jamsheed Quli’s tomb, an octagonal structure which looks double storeyed. The tomb of Mohammad Amin who died in 1596; who was the sixth son of Sultan Ibrahim Qutub Shah and father of Sultan Mohammad Qutub Shah at a young age of 25, is towards the west of the tomb complex. The tomb has two graves inside.

Lo ! some we loved..the loveliest and the Best

……………..one by one….crept silently to Rest.

                                   ……..from the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam.

Archway at tomb of Sultan  Abdullah Qutub Shah, tomb complex, Ibrahimbagh, Hyderabad|Dinesh Singh

          An unfinished tomb started by Sultan Abul Hasan Tana Shah, houses the grave of Mirza Nizamuddin Ahmed, Sultan Abdullah’s eldest son-in-law. The royal tomb complex also has the mosque of Hayat Bakshi Begum and the dargah of Hazrat Hussain Shah Wali, Sufi saint and builder of the Hussain Sagar at Hyderabad. A mortuary bath in Turkish style exists opposite the tomb of Mohammad Quli.   The tombs of the earlier Sultans are at the back of the bagh. The tombs of the Sultans have Quranic verses especially the ‘throne verse’, the aayat-ul-kursi and the Shia durud  in calligraphy. The tombs look uniform in design but there are some differences especially in the size of the structures. The tombs are usually built on a raised plinth with an arcaded gallery around a square chamber. A ring of lotus petals are seen at the base of the bulbous dome over the structure which looks very ornate and decorative. Aurangzeb had mounted cannons on the tombs during his siege efforts in 1679 to destroy the fortifications of Golconda Fort.

Cannon balls, tomb complex, Ibrahimbagh, Hyderabad|Dinesh Singh

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           Mortuary bath, tomb complex, Ibrahimbagh, Hyderabad|Dinesh Singh

         Bagh Safa, Ibrahimbagh, Hyderabad|Dinesh Singh

When the  sun sets here the silhouette of the tombs are seen against the evening sky; the breeze blows and one feels the whispering of tales of the centuries gone by. India’s poetess Sarojini Naidu has said of the tombs:

The royal tombs of Golconda

I muse among these silent fanes

Whose spacious darkness guards your dust

around me sleep the hoary plains

That hold your ancient wars in trust

I pause,my dreaming spirit hears,

Across the wind’s unquiet tides,

The glimmering music of your spears

The laughter of your royal brides,

The royal tombs of Golconda

In vain o Kings,doth time aspire

to make your names oblivion’s sport

While yonder hill wears like a tier

The ruined grandeur of your fort

Though centuries falter and decline

Your proven strongholds will remain

Embodied memories of your line

Incarnate legends of your reign.

O Queens, in vain old Fate decreed

Your flower-like bodies to the tomb;

Death is in truth the vital seed

Of your imperishable bloom

Each new-born year the bulbuls sing

Their songs of your renascent loves;

Your beauty wakens with the spring

To kindle these pomegranate groves.

 

 

References and image attributions

       1.History of the Qutub Shahi dynasty/H.K Sherwani, New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal,   1974.

       2.The art and architecture of the Deccan Sultanates/George Michell and Mark Zebrowski, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

       3. The heritage of the Qutub Shahis of Golconda and Hyderabad/M.A Nayeem, Hyderabad: Hyderabad Publishers, 2006.

       4. poetryarchive.com

       5. Images by are by Dinesh Singh, D. Vinod, Asif Ali Khan and the author.

 

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Soma Ghosh

 

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Hyderabad school of painting : depictions of Deccan

 

       The Hyderabad school of Deccani painting had started evolving in early 18th century with the foundation of the Asaf Jahi dynasty. They were the Nizams of Hyderabad; seven rulers have governed the region. Mir Qamaruddin Khan, Nizam-ul-mulk a Viceroy or subedar of the Deccan under the Mughals declared independence in 1724 A. D. He being a patron of the arts along with the rich influence of the Golconda school and Mughal styles; helped in creating many works of art under the Hyderabad-Deccani genre in Aurangabad and Hyderabad.

       The school was influenced by other styles but  had its own charcteristics.  They can be seen in its treatment of subjects,costumes, landscape, flora, fauna and the general colouring have Deccani influence. Scenes from gardens and courtyards have been captured other than the main themes which included portraits of the rulers and their families,noblemen, women on terraces, saints and Raga-raginis.

After the death of the first Nizam and subsequent rulers like his son Nasir Jung and Muzaffar Jung, grandson and another son Salabat Jung, Mir Nizam Ali Khan became ruler as Asaf Jah II in 1762. He too was a patron of the arts and during his reign poets, musicians and artists came to his court. His biography Tuzuki-Asafi was written and illustrated by Tajalli Ali Shah in 1793. His court painter was Rai Venkatachalam. Raja Chandulal also patronised the arts and many works were made for Raja Nanak Ram, Rai Rayan and other Hindu noblemen. The political condition during the 18th century was not very stable and this affected the character of the paintings. However lot of portraits were made between the fall of Golconda in 1687 and the beginning of the Asaf Jahi rule in 1724, when the area was under the Mughal governors.

 

    Paintings of the Hyderabad school depict flowers and trees like the palm tree, coconut,plumeria, champa etc. Flowering plants, terraces and parapets made of marble with jaali (trellis) work, doors in brown are seen. Some paintings depict peacocks, ducks and fishes. The sky is blue or blue-green with touches of indigo  to depict clouds. Carpets and rugs are seen in some works. The human figures are tall and have sharp features. Women are shown wearing stringed pearl necklaces. 

     Sikandar Jah succeeded Nizam Ali Khan as Asaf Jah III(1803-1829) and paintings were still being made. Under Asaf Jah IV and Asaf Jah V paintings depicting gardens and harem scenes were made. By the mid-nineteeth century the demand for these paintings reduced and the paintings went into history but give us a glimpse into the life of that time.File:Woman and Attendants with a Bird.jpg

Woman with  her attendant, Hyderabad, late 18th century.

By Deccan School [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

 

 

File:Ladies on a Terrace.jpg

.Women on a terrace,18th century, Hyderabad.

See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.

 

References :

  • Mittal, Jagdish/Deccani Kalams/Bombay : Marg Publications, Vol XVI,No : 2, 1963.

  • Zebrowski, Mark/Deccani painting, New Delhi : Roli Books,1983.





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Soma Ghosh

© author

 

Bygone splendour : a history of the Qutub Shahi dynasty

The Qutub Shahi dynasty of the Deccan is remembered for many contributions. The Golconda Fort,Charminar, various monuments and founding of the city of Hyderabad in the Deccan region of India.

The Bahmani kingdom ruled the Deccan between 1347-1525 from Gulbarga initially and then from Bidar. However it disintegrated and five independent kingdoms evolved . The Qutub Shahis with capital at Golconda, the Imad Shahis with capital at Ellichpur, the Adil Shahis with capital at Bijapur, the Nizam Shahis with capital at Ahmednagar, The Barid Shahis with capital at Bidar.

The founder of the Qutb Shahi kingdom was Sultan Quli, an immigrant whose paternal home was in Hamadan, Iran. The Bahamani empire had many afaqis or immigrants from Iran,Iraq,Turkistan, Arabia,Africa,etc. These afaqis gradually dominated society and occupied important posts. The society of Deccan was a cultural synthesis and included people of different ethnic origin,races,religion and culture etc. This lead to evolution of “Deccan culture” and later “Hyderabadi culture”which continues to this day.

Sultan Quli came along with his uncle Allah Quli to Deccan and Bahmani ruler Sultan Mahmud Shah Bahmani received them well and appointed  Sultan Quli as one of his courtiers.He was given  horses, a jagir of Kurangal. He earned the title Qutb-ul-mulk beacause of his military and literary talent.He was appointed tarafdar(governor) of Telangana in 1495. and the fort at Golconda hill was added to his existing jagir. From this jagir evolved the Golconda fort-city and the capital which got densely populated with time.

Sultan Quli rebuilt the mud fort which was originally built by the Kakatiyas and called Mankal. He renamed it as Muhammadnagar. In 1518, he declared independence and made Golconda his capital. He strengthened the defences of the hill and built strong ramparts. The fort-city included public buildings, mosques, offices, palaces, rest-rooms,gardens, baths etc.

 

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Fort view; pic by Isha Vatsa

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Fort view; pic by Isha Vatsa

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Fort view; pic by Isha Vatsa

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Fort views; pics by Isha Vatsa

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Cannon balls at fort; pic by Isha Vatsa

Sultan Quli ruled for 50 years, 24 as governor and 26 as ruler before his assassination in 1542. The Golconda kingdom extended from Warangal to the Masulipatnam(now Machilipatnam) coast. His son Jamsheed Quli succeeded him who ruled for seven years.

After him Sultan Ibrahim Qutb Shah,sixth son of Sultan Quli ruled after brief rule of few months of rule by Subhan Quli; for  30 years ie. 1550-80. Along with other Sultans of the Deccan subdued Vijayanagara, issued coins and patronised Telugu literature. He also had a great fondness for Persian and was responsible for the rise of Dakhni, precursor to Urdu.

He built the bridge over the Musi river in 1578 in order to expand his capital. His son-in-law Hussain Shah Wali built the Hussain Sagar Lake. A new town Ibrahimpatnam was named after him.He was succeeded by his son, Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah who was only fifteen and the administration was handed over to Rai Rao and Mir Momin Astrabadi.

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 Sultan Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah

By Muhammad ‘Alî – The Yorck Project: 10.000 Meisterwerke der Malerei. DVD-ROM, 2002. ISBN 3936122202. Distributed by DIRECTMEDIA Publishing GmbH., Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=155956

Since Golconda was large, prosperous and densely populated, its fame of diamonds and printed cloth attracted traders from Europe and Asia, the need for a new city was submitted via a petition to the Sultan by the nobility. This was accepted and the plan for construction of a new city was prepared by Mir Momin Astrabadi. The Sultan laid the foundation in 1591 and named it Hyderabad, after Hyder, the title of the fourth caliph of Islam. Since the city had many gardens it has also been referred to as Baghnagar by historians and travellers. Hyderabad was built on the gridiron system in the form of a large double cross. The Charminar stands at the city centre, completed in 1592 and four roads extend from its portals. The city was divided into 12,000 muhallas(precincts). The city’s main roads were lined with shops, buildings, mosques etc. The Charminar is the most famous Qutb Shahi monument.The Sultan built many public buildings and beautiful gardens. The Charminar is flanked by four arches, the Charkaman at a distance of 375 feet from the centre. The gates are called Sher-e-ali kaman or Sher-e-batil , Kali kaman, Machli kaman, Charminar ki kaman.

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Charminar, Hyderabad

By Ramnath Bhat from PUNE, India – Charminar, Hyderabad.(_MG_8622), CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=46768370

The Qutub Shahis built many palaces like Khudadad mahal, Chandan Mahal,Sajan Mahal, Lal Mahal, Nadi Mahal and pavillions like Naubat Pahad and Koh-i-tur etc. Muhammad Quli Qutab Shah built the Badshahi Ashura Khana in 1595, where alams similar to the ones carried by Imam Hussain are kept. He also built commercial complexes around the Charminar including the Lad Bazaar. After Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, his nephew Mohammad Qutub Shah, son of Mohammad Amin, succeeded him  in 1612 since he had no male heir. He ruled for 14 years. He laid out a few more gardens and continued work on the Mecca Masjid after getting sand from Mecca in Arabia. The mosque has huge dimensions with a prayer hall of 225 feet length and is 75 feet in height.Sultan Mohammad maintained a  fleet of ships and Golconda had good trade with Europe.He was succeeded by his eldest son Abdullah who supported trade with the British. The Golconda kingdom produced a variety of products and Masulipatnam was an important port city in its territory.

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Sultan Abdullah Qutub Shah

By Unknown (production) – http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O73982/painting-sultan-abdullah-qutb-shah/, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=17712775

Abdullah Qutub Shah had no male heir and his son-in-law Abul Hasan Tana Shah was made Sultan in 1672. Golconda fell to the Mughals after along seige in 1687 and along with the plunder of Hyderabad, the Mughals took away the accumulated wealth of Sultan Abul Hasan who spent his remaining life at Daulatabad.

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Sultan Abul Hasan Tana Shah

By Minuchihr – http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/124863/Portrait_of_Abul_Hasan_the_Last_Sultan_of_Golconda/set/f6607578453e6ad0c407265b3ac89cfa?referring-=Portrait+of+Abu%27l+Hasan%2C+the+Last+Sultan+of+Golconda#http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/labs/splitsecond/painting.php?id=132, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=17115478

 

Golconda was famous for its diamonds and there were many mining sites within the kingdom. The Kohinoor, Hope Diamond, Pitt-regent, Idol’s eye,Dariya-e-noor, Noor-al-ayn are a few famous diamonds.

The Qutub Shahi architecture was unique and included arches,pillars, arches, domes and minarets. The rulers originally came from Persia or Iran and were patrons of art and learning. They invited scholars, artists and craftsmen to their courts. Their architecture was originally a mix of Persian and Deccan styles. Later Turkish influences were seen. Their architectural structures include the fort,mosques,palaces, tombs and public utility buildings.  A very important building was the Darushifa which was  a general hospital and  attached to it was a college for Unani medicine. Qutub Shahis had their own coinage, patronised learning and the languages Persian and Dakhni. Many books were written in Persian in various subjects with their support. Sultan Muhammad Quli himself composed 15,000 couplets in Urdu.

The fort stands on a hill, 400 feet above the plains around and is a large Deccani fort. Sultan Quli replaced the original mud fort and built a new stone structure with large gates. Many structures were built within and it became a fort with three fortifications. There were palace, gardens and mosques. The fort complex is in the shape of an irregular rhombus having a crenallated granite wall, a moat and a citadel called Bala Hissar. The Fateh Darwaza is the outermost gate. The other gates include Bala Hissar Darwaza, Banjari Darwaza, Jamali Darwaza, Naya Qila Darwaza and Moti Darwaza. Bahmani, Badhi, Mecca and Patancheru are the other gates. The fort has 87 bastions and 52 posterns. The Petla Burj, Musa Burj and Madina Burj are well known bastions. A cannon Fateh Rahbar is kept on Petla Burj. Structures inside the fort include Shamshir Kotha, Telka kotha,Dhan ka kotha,Jabbar Kotha, Jami Masjid, Ashur khana,Guard rooms, Hathirath mahal, Katora hauz,, Aslah khana,Ambar khana, Bahmani mosque. a Hindu temple, a throne for the Sultan ascended by ten steps. Palaces of Tarmati and Pemamati , ladies from the royal harem, were also built.

Mushk Mahal was a palace built in 1673 by Miyan Mishk. Toli Masjid was built by Musa Khan, a mahaldar of Abdullah Qutub Shah in 1671. Mosques at Saidabad and Mirpet, which has calligraphy by Hussain b.Mahmud Shirazi were  built by Mohd Quli Qutb Shah. Mosques exist at Khairatabad, Musheerabad and near Puranapul at Hyderabad from the time of the Qutub Shahis.

To the north west of the fort are situated the Qutub Shahi tombs in a garden ambience built in their typical architectural style.

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Qutub Shahi tombs, view from the fort.

By Unknown – http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/onlineex/apac/photocoll/g/019pho0000752s5u00021000.html, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=8039174

Deccani qalam is the style of painting which evolved under the Qutub Shahis. The kalamkari techniques of Pallakolu. Masulipatnam, Kalahasti flourished in their reign. Picchwais were also produced during the Qutb Shahi rule, expressing themes from Lord Krishna’s life.

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Miniature painting during Qutub Shahi rule

By (Deccan, Golconda), – http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/labs/splitsecond/painting.php?id=122, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=17115143

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Ragamala painting, Golconda school

By Deccan School – http://www.harekrsna.com/sun/features/12-11/features2319.htm, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=21077970

References :

H.K. Sherwani/History of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, New Delhi ; Munshilal Manoharlal,1974
H.K. Sherwani/Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah founder of Haidarabad, New Delhi : Asia Publishing House,1967.
M.A.Nayeem/The heritage of the Qutb Shahis of Golconda and Hyderabad,Hyderabad: Hyderabad Publishers,2006
M.A.Nayeem/The splendour of Hyderabad, Hyderabad Publishers: Hyderabad,2002.

 

 

Posted by: Soma Ghosh